The Ncert Solutions of class 10 history chapter 1 questions and answers is an online collection of all correct choices to class 10 problems. All question has been answered in full, with a comprehensive explanation, research, and conclusions.
Short question of class 10 history chapter 1 questions and answers
1. Write a note on:
a. Guiseppe Mazzini
Giuseppe Mazzini was an Italian revolutionary born in Genoa in 1807. He was a member of the Carbonari secret society. He got exiled in 1831 after attempting a revolt in Liguria. Giuseppe Mazzini attempted to put together a clear agenda for the unitary Italian Republic in the 1830s. Mussolini had founded a secret group named ‘Young Italy’ to promote his aims.
b. Count Camillo de Cavour
Count Camilo de Cavour was neither a revolutionary nor a democratic leader. He was indeed the chief minister of the state of Sardinia-Piedmont.
He formed a diplomatic relationship with France.
He assisted Sardinia-Piedmont in defeating Austria in 1859, freeing the northern portion of Italy, thru a smart diplomatic alliance.
c. The Greek war of independence
Since the fourteenth century, Greece had been a territory of the Ottoman Empire. The rise of revolutionary nationalism in Europe fueled a Greek independence fight that started in 1821.
Poets and painters praised Greece as a source of European culture and rallied mass support for its fight against a Muslim empire.
Nationalists in Greece got help from fellow Greeks who went into exile, as well as from numerous Western Europeans who admired old Greek culture.
The Treaty of Constantinople of 1832 established Greece as an independent state.
d. Frankfurt parliament
The Frankfurt parliament was an all-German national assembly composed of middle-class professions, industrialists, and rich craftsmen from various German districts. The meeting was held on May 18th in Frankfurt’s St. Paul church.
Frankfurt parliament assisted the German nation in becoming a monarchy-ruled state with a legislature. It was opposed by the army as well as the nobility. It became dissolved on May 31, 1849.
e. The role of women in nationalist struggles.
Women from the liberal middle and working classes had a part in national campaigns that merged her aspirations for constitutionalism with national unity. They used the rising general discontent to urge their demands for the establishment of a country based on legislative principles – a constitution, freedom of the press, and civil liberties.
Women organised a political organisation, in which they established a journal. During Assembly voting days, women were prevented from voting. Women were portrayed as spectators, capable of standing in the visitor’s galleries.
2. What steps did the French revolutionaries take to create a sense of collective identity among the French people?
* The concepts of ‘La Patrie’ (fatherland) and ‘Le Citoyen’ (citizen) emphasize the point of a cohesive society with equal treatment under the law. The ancient royal flag was replaced with a new French flag, the tricolour. All in the name of the nation, fresh songs were written, pledges were given, and sacrifices were remembered.
* A strong centralized structure was established, having uniform laws enacted for all inhabitants living inside the country’s borders. Internal customs charges and fees were removed, and a unified weights and measurements system was established. Local languages were suppressed, and French had become the national language in the form as was spoken and written in Paris.
* The revolutionaries went on to say that it was the purpose and destiny of the French people to free Europe’s peoples from oppression.
3. Who were Marianne and Germania? What was the importance of the way in which they were portrayed?
Artists made feminine metaphors to represent the nation in the 19th century.
Marianne, a well-known Christian name, promoted the significance of a people’s state. Her features were inspired by Freedom and the Sovereign state: the red hat, the tricolour, and the horizontal stripe. Marianne monuments were placed at various areas to inform folks of the nation’s flag of peace and to encourage individuals to associate with that too. Marianne’s picture appeared on currency and stamps.
Germania had become a symbol for the Germans. Germania wears an oak crown in pictorial renderings since the German oak represents bravery.
4. Briefly trace the process of German unification.
Conservatives frequently used nationalistic emotions to advance government authority & achieve authoritarian rule throughout Europe. This could be seen in the procedure by which Germany and Italy became republics.
Middle-class Germans attempted to combine the several areas of the German States, however, these efforts were blocked by the acts of wealthy landowners known as Junkers of Prussia. Triple battles involving Austria,
Denmark and France lasted 7 years and resulted in a Prussian triumph. Prussian King William I was named German Empire in January 1871.
Modernization of Germany’s monetary, financial, legislative, and judicial institutions was a priority.’
5. What changes did Napoleon introduce to make the administrative system more efficient in the territories ruled by him?
The Napoleonic Code, also known as the Civil Code of 1804, abolished all rights depending on blood, created equal protection under the law, and guaranteed the right to own property. This Code was transmitted to the French-controlled territories.
Napoleon streamlined districts eliminated the feudal society and liberated peasants from feudalism and manorial amount due in the Dutch Republic, Switzerland, Italy, and Germany.
Farmers, craftsmen, labourers, and new businesspeople celebrated their sudden liberty.
Industrialists and slight manufacturers, especially, came to recognise that consistent law, regular scales and measurements, and a single new currency will expedite the transportation and trade of commodities and money through one zone to another.
Long question of class 10 history chapter 1 questions and answers
1. Explain what is meant by the 1848 revolution of the liberals. What were the political, social and economic ideas supported by the liberals?
Alongside the poor revolts, people’s second movement was brewing in 1848. That democratic movement, led by skilled middle and working classes, impacted poor jobless, hungry farmers, as well as labourers in many European nations. The actions of February 1848 in France resulted in the resignation of the monarchy and also the establishment of a democracy founded on free elections.
In the other areas of Europe, wherein separate countries didn’t really exist – including Germany, Italy, Poland, and the Austro-Hungarian Empire – males and females of a liberal middle and lower classes united the desires for constitutional law with unity.
They have used rising general anger to urge the aspirations for the establishment of a republic based upon legislative principles — a constitution, freedom of the press, and freedom of assembly.
The subject of granting females democratic freedom was indeed a difficult one within the progressive movement, where many females had played an active role throughout the period. Females had created their independent organisations, established publications, as well as participated in party meetings and marches.
2. Choose three examples to show the contribution of culture to the growth of nationalism in Europe.
The following are three examples of how culture has contributed to the rise of nationalism in Europe.
1) Folk poetry, folk dance and folk music were used to spread the authentic essence of the country. As a result, documenting and gathering various types of folk culture was indeed an important aspect of nation-building.
2) The importance of language cannot be overstated. Polish languages were driven out of school systems just after the Russian takeover, and the Russian language was implemented nationwide. In Poland, the clerics started to use language as a means of the nationalist struggle. Church services and religious teaching were conducted in Polish. The usage of Polish became associated with resistance to Russian authority.
3) Romanticism was a cultural movement that tried to foster a specific type of patriotic spirit. The celebration of logic and rationality was often opposed by Romantic musicians and writers, who rather emphasised passion, vision, and spiritual sentiments. They attempted to establish a shared cultural history as the foundation of a country.
3. Through a focus on any two countries, explain how nations developed over the nineteenth century.
The two examples below represent two nations that arose throughout the nineteenth century, namely
Germany and Italy.
Mazzini attempted to unite Italy within the 1830s. He had founded a private society known as ‘Young Italy,’ but had ended in failure. As a result, Sardinia-Piedmont, led by King Victor Emmanuel II, was tasked with uniting Italian nations via war.
In 1859, Austrian soldiers were weakened. Aside from Sardinia-Piedmont, a considerable number of supporters have adopted the struggle beneath Giuseppe Garibaldi’s command. They stormed to South Italy
in 1860 and defeated Spanish overlords. Victor Emmanuel II became crowned King of Italy in 1861.
Conservatives frequently used nationalist emotions to advance government authority and achieve political influence throughout Europe. This could be seen from the procedure by which Germany and Italy became nation-states.
Middle-class Germans attempted to combine the various areas of German States, although such efforts were blocked by acts of wealthy farmers known as “Junkers of Prussia.” Three wars against Austria, Denmark, and France lasted 7 years and resulted in a Prussia win. In January 1871, Prussian King William I was named German Emperor.
Modernization of Germany’s monetary, financial, juridical, and shared decision-making was prioritised.
4. How was the history of nationalism in Britain unlike the rest of Europe?
People residing in each British Empire had cultural identities like English, Welsh, Scot, or Irish.
The creation of the country did not occur as a result of dramatic turmoil or rebellion. This was the end product of the lengthy procedure.
The British Empire of Great Britain was formed as a consequence of the Union between England and Scotland. Scottish people were barred from using Gaelic or wearing their native attire. Several people were forcibly displaced.
In 1801, Ireland became forcefully absorbed into the United Kingdom. The English assisted the Irish Protestants in establishing their supremacy over Catholics.
The new Britain’s icons – the British flag (Union Jack), the patriotic song (God Save our Noble King), as well as the English language – was zealously pushed, and also the previous states existed as only inferior allies in this union.
5. Why did nationalist tensions emerge in the Balkans?
That was a geographically and ethnically diverse territory that included contemporary Romania, Bulgaria, Albania, Greece, Macedonia, Croatia, Bosnia & Herzegovina, Slovenia, Serbia, and Montenegro.
The Ottoman Empire ruled over a considerable portion of that too. Finally, autonomy by them is proclaimed.
The rise of passionate nationalist ideals within the Balkans, including the breakup of the Ottoman Empire, make the territory extremely dangerous.
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