Reading these Class 9 History Chapter 2 Important Points. will help you to understand this chapter better and also be able to answer questions on it.
The following themes from this chapter have received special attention in the previous three years’ tests, and students should pay attention to them.
- The Russian Revolution is making progress.
- The Russian Revolution and the First World War.
- Russia’s February and October Revolutions: What Happened and What Happened.
- In Russia, there have been social changes.
The Social Change Era
The French Revolution provided the opportunity to make a significant change in the way society was organized. However, not everyone in Europe desired a total revolution. Some were referred to as “conservatives,” while others were referred to as “liberals” or “radicals.”
Liberals desired a country that tolerated all religions. They advocated for a democratically elected parliamentary government governed by laws interpreted by a well-trained court free of rulers and officials. They were not members of the Democratic Party.
Radicals desired a country in which the bulk of the public was represented in government. They objected to the concentration of wealth in the hands of a few individuals rather than the presence of the private property.
Conservatives: They were staunch opponents of change. Following the revolution, they began to tolerate change as long as it was gradual, had linkages to the past, and were respectful of the past.
Industries and Social Change: This was an epoch of economic and social transformation. For poor pay, men, women, and children were driven into factories. Factory owners who were Liberals and Radicals believed that workers’ contributions should be rewarded.
In Europe, socialism was opposed to private property. They had opposing perspectives about the future. Some people supported cooperatives, while others asked that governments support cooperatives.
Industrial society, according to Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels, implied a capitalist society, which was not advantageous for everyone. Marx felt that workers would be liberated from capitalism if they lived in a socialist society. This would be a communist society with a strong emphasis on collective land and factory ownership.
Workers in Germany and England began to organize associations in order to fight for improved living circumstances. They established money for members in need, reduced working hours, and the chance to vote.
The Revolution in Russia
Tzar Nicholas II governed the Russian empire in 1914.
Economy and Society: Agriculturalists made up the majority of the Russian population. Industries were being established, the majority of which were the private property of the industrialists.
Workers were segregated into groups, but when they were dissatisfied, they banded together to strike. Unlike the French peasant, peasants had little reverence for nobility.
The only peasant group that pooled their land and divided it according to the needs of individual households were Russian peasants.
Prior to 1914, all political parties in Russia were considered illegal.
In the year 1900, the Russian Socialist Democratic Labour Party was founded. It fought to grant peasants rights to land previously owned by lords.
Because the land was split among peasants on a regular basis, it was assumed that peasants, rather than workers, would be the primary source of revolution.
However, Lenin disagreed, believing that peasants were not a single social bloc. Bolsheviks and Mensheviks were two factions within the party.
Russia was an autocrat prior to the Revolution of 1905. The Tzar was not bound by the laws of Parliament.
Liberals wanted to put a stop to this situation. During the Revolution of 1905, they campaigned for a constitution.
Bloody Sunday: By 1904, prices of necessary items had risen so swiftly that real earnings had fallen by 20%. Four members of the Putilov Iron Works were fired during this time.
It was necessary to take action. Over 110,000 workers in St. Petersburg went on strike, seeking shorter working hours and higher pay. The police and Cossacks attacked the march.
More than a hundred workers were killed. As a result, there were strikes. A Constituent Assembly was desired by the people. The Tzar agreed to the formation of a Duma or elected Consultative Parliament. Within 75 days, the Tzar dismissed the first Duma and announced the election of a second Duma.
The Russian Empire and the First World War: In 1914, the Russian Force was the world’s largest army. The conflict was first well-liked, but support waned as time went on. Anti-German feelings were rife.
The Russian army suffered heavy losses in Germany and Austria. In Russia, there were 7 million casualties and 3 million refugees.
The conflict had an impact on the sector as well. There was a labor shortage, therefore railway lines were blocked and tiny workshops were shuttered.
There was a grain scarcity, agricultural production plummeted, and food supply crises resulted.
The February Revolution in Petrograd
Petrograd was bleak in the winter of 1917. In the workers’ quarters, there was a food shortage.
A manufacturing lockout occurred on February 22nd. In solidarity, workers from 50 different factories came together. Strikes were also led and participated in by women. This became known as International Women’s Day.
The government set a curfew since the fashionable district’s residences and government buildings were surrounded by labourers.
The government dispatched the cavalry and police to keep an eye on them on the 24th and 25th.
The administration suspended the Duma on February 25th, and MPs spoke out against it. The crowds were out in force once more.
The Police Headquarters was ransacked on the 27th. People chanted slogans and marched through the streets.
The cavalry was summoned once more, but they declined to fire on the protestors.
After an officer was shot in a regiment’s barracks, other regiments mutinied and voted to join the strikers. In the evening, they convened to create a Soviet, or council. This was the Soviet of Petrograd.
A delegation met with the Tzar on the 28th. He was advised to abdicate by his military officers.
On March 2nd, the Tzar abdicated.
To manage the country, the Soviet and Duma leaders organized a Provincial Government.
Parliamentarians, laborers, women workers, soldiers, and military commanders were all participating.
Public meetings and associations were no longer restricted.
Everywhere, Soviets like the Petrograd Soviet were established.
Factory committees were formed in various places, and they began criticizing how industrialists managed their facilities.
In the army, soldiers’ committees were founded.
The Provisional Government’s strength was eroding, while Bolshevik influence was growing. It made the decision to take drastic steps to quell the rising unrest.
Workers’ attempts to govern factories were met with resistance, and leaders were jailed.
Land redistribution was pushed by peasants and Socialist-Revolutionary leaders. Between July and September 1917, land committees were organized, and peasants seized land.
Revolution of October
Lenin persuaded the Petrograd Soviet and the Bolshevik Party to agree to a socialist takeover of power on October 16, 1917. The Soviets created a Military Revolutionary Committee to organize the seizing.
On the 24th of October, the revolt began. Prime Minister Kerenskii has left the city to call up reinforcements.
Military personnel loyal to the government seized the offices of two Bolshevik periodicals early in the morning. To take over telephone and telegraph offices and secure the Winter Palace, pro-government forces were dispatched.
The Military Revolutionary Committee responded by ordering the seizure of government offices and the arrest of ministers.
The Winter Palace was shelled by Aurora’s ship. Other ships grabbed control of key strategic locations.
The city had been taken over during the night, and the ministers had surrendered.
The Bolshevik action was endorsed by the whole Russian Congress of Soviets in Petrograd.
In Moscow, heavy warfare erupted, and by December, the Bolsheviks had taken control of the Moscow–Petrograd area.
Lenin, the Bolsheviks, and troops were all involved (pro-government).
- Private property was completely despised by the Bolsheviks.
- In November 1917, the majority of industries and banks were nationalized.
- The land was designated public property, and peasants were given the right to seize aristocracy estates.
- The use of aristocratic titles was outlawed.
- The troops and officials were given new uniforms.
- The Bolsheviks held an election in November 1917, but they were unable to secure a majority of votes.
- Russia has devolved into a one-party state.
- Trade unions were kept under the supervision of the ruling party.
- A centralized planning procedure was implemented. As a result, the economy grew.
- Industrial output has risen.
- A system of extended education was created.
- Farms began to be collectively owned.
The Russian army began to disintegrate when the Bolsheviks enacted land redistribution. The Bolshevik rebellion was opposed by non-Bolshevik socialists, liberals, and allies of autocracy. They were backed up by forces from France, the United States, the United Kingdom, and Japan. They were all involved in a conflict with the Bolsheviks.
Creating a Socialist State – During the Civil War, the Bolsheviks maintained businesses and banks nationalized. A centralized planning procedure was implemented. Construction and industrialization began at a rapid pace. A system of extended education was created.
Stalin and Collective Farming – Stalin felt that wealthy peasants and businesspeople hoarded grain supplies in order to cause grain scarcity. As a result, collectivization became a necessity. This method would also assist in the modernization of farms. Farmers who refused to join the collectivization movement were punished, deported, or exiled.
Influence on the World Stage
By the 1950s, it was widely acknowledged both inside and outside the country that everything was no longer in line with the Russian revolution’s objectives. Despite the fact that its businesses and agriculture had flourished and/or were being fed, its population was denied basic freedoms. However, it was understood that social ideas were still held in high regard by Russians. However, the concepts of socialism were rethought in a variety of ways in each country.