In 1898, the Russian Socialist Democratic Labour Party was founded.
It fought hard to grant peasants rights to land once owned by lords.
Because the land was shared among peasants on a regular basis, they were natural socialists, and it was believed that peasants, rather than workers, would be the major source of the revolution.
Here are the Class 9 History Chapter 2 Questions and Answers PDF. Socialism in Europe and the Russian revolution.
Q1. What were the social, economic and political conditions in Russia before 1905?
Before 1905, Russia’s social, economic, and political situation was as follows.
a) Social Conditions: Russian Orthodox Christianity, which arose from the Greek Orthodox Church, was the majority religion. Catholics, Protestants, Muslims, and Buddhists were all part of the empire.
Non-Russian nations did not get the same treatment as Russian nationals. They were denied the right to practise their culture and speak their own tongue.
On the basis of skill and training, workers were separated into groups. Peasants organised themselves into communes or mirs.
(b) Economic conditions: Agriculturists made up the majority of Russians. Grain was Russia’s most important export. There were few industries. St Petersburg and Moscow were major manufacturing centres.
Craftsmen handled a large portion of the production. Along with the artisan workshops, there were enormous industries.
Foreign investment in manufacturing increased as the Russian rail network expanded. Massive amounts of coal, iron and steel were produced.
Factory workers and craftspeople were in equal numbers. Capitalists exploited the workers and made their lives difficult.
(c) Political conditions: Russia was a monarchy at the time. (Tsar Nicholas II governed Russia and its empire, which included what is now Finland, Latvia, Lithuania, Estonia, Poland, Ukraine, and Belarus.)
It spanned the Pacific Ocean and included today’s Central Asian countries, as well as Georgia, Armenia, and Azerbaijan.
The Tsars believed in rulers’ divine rights. They were not accountable to the legislature. In Russia, all political parties were outlawed.
2. In what ways was the working population in Russia different from other countries in Europe, before 1917?
(a) The working class in Europe was more unified than the working class in Russia.
In England and Germany, workers organised organisations and battled for improved living and working circumstances.
These organisations established funds to assist employees in need.
The demand for a decrease in working hours and the opportunity to vote was echoed by workers across Europe.
Workers’ organisations also backed political parties and, eventually, created their own political parties.
parties founded by socialists and trade unionists include the Labour Party in the United Kingdom and the Socialist Party in France.
(b) The Russian workers, in contrast to the European working population, were not unified. Workers were classified into groups based on their profession.
Employees who had employment that required expertise and training thought of themselves as being on a higher level than unqualified workers.
Workers had strong ties to the communities from whence they came, which created a social division among them.
Workers’ organisations have exploded in Russia, as they have in Europe. They wanted a reduction in working hours and a raise in pay. The administration put a stop to the employees’ protests.
3. Why did the Tsarist autocracy collapse in 1917?
Because of the First World War, Russia had a lot of anti-German feelings.
The autocracy was also unpopular due to Tsarina Alexandra’s German ancestry and lousy advisors.
On the shoreline, Russia suffered terrible setbacks, with millions of deaths.
To prevent the adversary from gaining an edge, the Russian army burned crops and structures. It resulted in the influx of millions of refugees.
The Tsar was cursed as a result of the circumstance. People rioted over food due to a food crisis.
The Russian army, like the rest of the country, altered its allegiance and began backing the revolutionaries.
On February 22nd, a lockout took occurred at a plant on the right side of the Neva River in solidarity with workers on the left bank. Strikes were led by women.
A curfew was enforced by the authorities. The administration later suspended the Duma, which sparked widespread demonstrations.
Demonstrators looted the police station and chanted slogans demanding food, pay, better working hours, and democracy.
The government dispatched the cavalry, but they declined to open fire on the protesters. Soldiers and striking workers assembled in the building where the Duma met to create a ‘Soviet’ or ‘council.’
The Petrograd Soviet was the name for the Soviet Union of the city of Petrograd.
When a delegation went to visit the Tsar the next day, the military chiefs persuaded him to abdicate.
To govern the country, Soviet and Duma’s leaders organised a Provisional Government.
As a result, the Tsarist regime fell apart in February 1917.
Make two lists: one with the main events and the effects of the February Revolution and the other with the main events and effects of the October Revolution.
Write a paragraph on who was involved in each, who were the leaders and what was the impact of each on Soviet history.
Revolution of February:
Factory lockout on the right bank on February 22nd.
Workers at 50 factories go on strike on February 23.
Strikers hold demonstrations on the 24th and 25th. Police were dispatched to disperse the employees.
The administration suspends the Duma on the 25th.
The employees trashed the police headquarters on the 27th. Workers are supported by regiments. Petrograd soviet employees go on strike.
The Tsar abdicates on March 2nd. The Provisional Government is made up of Soviet and Duma leaders.
Officials from the army, landowners, and businesspeople all gained clout.
Public gatherings were no longer restricted.
The number of trade unions expanded.
The 16th of October is the start of the October Revolution.
The Bolshevik leader Vladimir Lenin persuades the Petrograd Soviet and the Bolshevik Party to accept a socialist takeover of power.
The Soviet 24th constituted a Military Revolutionary Committee:
The insurrection against the Provisional Government officially starts.
The Military Revolutionary Committee took control of government buildings and detained ministers.
The winter palace was bombarded with shells.
The Provisional Government’s ministers resigned.
The Bolsheviks took power.
Nationalization of industries and banks
Russia has devolved into a one-party state. The Bolshevik Party was the sole party.
During the February Revolution, industry employees and government regiments were crucial. Workers and regiments banded together.
The main result of the February Revolution was the demise of the Russian Monarchy and the founding of the Petrograd Soviet.
The Bolshevik leader, Vladimir Lenin, was a key figure in the October revolution. His Bolshevik Party took control after overthrowing the Provisional Government. The Russian Communist Party was founded.
3. What were the main changes brought about by the Bolsheviks immediately after the October Revolution?
Following the October Revolution, the Bolsheviks brought about several reforms. They were as follows:
Nationalization of industries and banks This meant that the government now had ownership and administration of the company.
The land was designated communal property, and peasants were permitted to seize aristocracy estates.
In cities, the Bolsheviks required huge residences to be divided according to family needs.
The usage of archaic aristocratic titles was prohibited.
New uniforms were created for the army and authorities.
The Russian Communist Party replaced the Bolshevik Party (Bolshevik).
Despite the objections of their political friends, the Bolsheviks reached an agreement with Germany and exited the First World War.
In subsequent years, the Bolsheviks were the sole party to run in elections to the All Russian Congress of Soviets. It was renamed the Russian Parliament.
4. Write a few lines to show what you know about:
(ii) The Duma
(iii) Women workers between 1900 and 1930.
(iv) The Liberals.
(v) Stalins collectivization programme
(I)Kulaks: These were the well-to-do peasants who were believed to be stockpiled in the prospect of a price increase.
They were raided in order to eradicate them so that modern farms and state-controlled mega-farms could be established.
(ii) The Duma: The Duma was a consultative parliament established with the Tsar’s assent during the 1905 Revolution.
(iii) Women workers between 1900 and 1930: Women made up 31% of the manufacturing labour force but were paid half to 3/4 of what males were paid.
They actively spearheaded strikes at a number of workplaces. They even worked on communal farms.
(iv) The Liberals: They were a group that sought to alter society. They desired a country that accommodated all religions and resisted the unchecked authority of dynastic monarchs.
They advocated for a representative, elected parliamentary government subject to laws that are interpreted by a well-trained court that is independent of rulers and officials.
(v) Stalin’s collectivisation programme: Stalin felt that by integrating small farms with big and modern farms, he might address the problem of food scarcity.
This was a collectivisation effort that started in 1929. Peasants were compelled to work in these state-run collective farms known as Kolkhoz.
Also, Read: French Revolution Class 9 question answers pdf
Class 9 History Chapter 2 Questions and Answers (Extra Questions)
Q1) Why did Kerenskii’s government lose support in Russia?
Answer: Kerenskii’s government became unpopular in Russia due to the following reasons:
His inability to feel the pulse of the country. He attempted to stifle the workers’ movement and the influence of the Bolsheviks.
People desired peace, but he sought to keep the battle going.
Non-Russian nationals were denied equal rights under his administration.
Q2) What historical event is known as Bloody Sunday in Russia?
Answer: On January 9, 1905, a crowd of peaceful workers, along with their wives and children, was shot at while on their approach to the Winter Palace to submit a petition to the Tsar.
Over a hundred employees were murdered, and another 300 were injured.
The massacre was known as Bloody Sunday in Russian history because it occurred on a Sunday.
Q3) What were the immediate ramifications of the Russian Revolution?
Answer: The following were the immediate repercussions of the Russian Revolution:
(a) In November 1917, the majority of enterprises and banks were nationalised. This meant that the government assumed ownership and management.
The land has been designated as social property.
(a) In cities, the Bolsheviks required huge residences to be divided according to family needs.
(c) They prohibited the usage of archaic aristocratic titles.
Q4) What was the fundamental principle of Marxist theory?
Answer: The Marxist theory’s fundamental principles were as follows:
(a) Marx felt that if private capitalists made a profit, workers’ conditions would not improve.
(b) Workers were required to destabilise capitalism and the authority of private property.
(c) Workers must build a truly socialist society in which all property is controlled by the state. This would be a communist society, and the Communist Party was the inevitable future society.
Q5) What role did the Bolshevik Party play in the October 1917 Russian Revolution?
The Bolshevik Party proposed clear plans to end the conflict, transferring land to peasants, and promoting the slogan “All Power to the Soviets.” The Bolsheviks were the only party with a definite stance on non-Russian nations.
Lenin had declared the right of all peoples, including those under the Russian Empire, to self-determination.
Q6) Describe the changes enacted by Russian Tsar Nicholas II following the Revolution?
Answer: After 1905, the majority of groups and unions operated on an unofficial basis.
They have been ruled unlawful from their inception. Kerensky’s political involvement was severely restricted.
The Duma, an elected legislature, was given the authority to pass laws.
He modified the voting regulations and crammed the third Duma with conservative lawmakers. Liberals and revolutionaries have barred entry.
Q7) Name three incidents following Bloody Sunday that led to Russia’s revolution in 1905?
Answer: Following the events of Bloody Sunday, which precipitated the Russian Revolution of 1905, three events occurred:
The announcement caused enormous upheaval throughout Russia. Strikes were held around the country.
Russia’s colleges were shuttered as student organisations staged walkouts protesting a lack of civil freedoms.
Lawyers, physicians, engineers, and middle-class employees formed the Union of Unions and requested a strike.
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Class 9 History Chapter 2 Questions and Answers ( Extra long questions )
Question 1: Describe the factors that led to the Russian Revolution?
The following are the circumstances that led to the Russian Revolution:
The Russian peasants were in terrible shape. Even two square meals a day were out of the question for the farmers. Their landholdings were limited, and they had to pay a lot of taxes.
Russian and international capitalist entrepreneurs exploited employees by putting them to work for 12-14 hours a day and giving them pitiful salaries.
Workers had no right to establish unions or demand reforms. They had a horrible existence.
Tsar Nicholas II ruled in a tyrannical and authoritarian manner. He had unrestricted authority and rights. People in the upper classes had several advantages.
The bureaucracy was both corrupt and ineffective. The regular people, who suffered the most, were fed up with the Tsar’s autocratic control and intended to revolt.
‘Scientific Socialism’ was promoted by Karl Marx. He was adamantly opposed to capitalism, which he saw as unfathomable exploitation of ordinary people.
Question 2: Describe briefly Lenin’s role in the 1917 Russian Revolution?
Answer: Lenin was a pivotal figure in the 1917 Russian Revolution. True, following the collapse of the Tsar, Lenin commanded the revolutionaries. It was, in fact, the start of the revolution.
The Provisional Government, led by Kerensky, was unable to meet the people’s demands and hence fell.
The Bolshevik Party, led by Lenin, proposed clear measures to terminate the war, distribute land to peasants, and spread the slogan ‘All Power to the Soviets.’
He had referred to the Russian empire as a “Prison of Nations,” and he had stated that “no true democracy could be built unless all non-Russian people were granted equal rights.”