Describe the problems faced by the Weimar Republic?
The Weimar constitution had inherent flaws that made the Weimar Republic vulnerable.
1. The first was proportional representation, which made it impossible for any party to obtain a majority, resulting in coalition administrations.
2. Article 48, which granted the President the authority to rule by decree, suspend civil liberties and declare a state of emergency.
3. The Weimar Republic was not well accepted by the people as a result of the conditions it was compelled to accept at Versailles at the end of World War I.
Germany had to accept a severe and humiliating deal with the Allies. Many individuals blamed the Weimar Republic for the war’s failure and for agreeing to the terms of the Treaty of Versailles.
4. In 1923, Germany refused to pay reparations, and the French invaded the Ruhr, the country’s most important industrial sector, to claim its coal.
Germany provided passive resistance in the form of printed paper money. The value of the German mark declined as a result of an excess of paper currency in circulation. The condition is known as hyperinflation.
5. Another economic catastrophe confronted the Weimar Republic. When the Wall Street Exchange failed in 1929, the United States withdrew its backing.
The German economy suffered the most from the economic crisis. Workers were laid off or had their pay lowered. The number of unemployed has risen to 6 million. People were fearful as a result of the economic crisis.
Discuss why Nazism became popular in Germany by 1930?
In 1919, Adolph Hitler seized control of the German Workers’ Party and renamed it the Nazi Party, therefore establishing Nazism in Germany.
During the Great Depression, Nazism gained popularity. The distinctive Nazi propaganda contributed to the popularity of Nazism.
Hitler vowed in his thunderous speeches to construct a strong country, restore German pride, and give work for all. The Nazi Party staged several public gatherings in order to instil solidarity among the population.
The red flags, Nazi salute, and rounds of applause drew a crowd, and Nazism gained popularity. The Meetings portrayed Hitler as Germany’s saviour.
The German people, who had been devastated by the First World War, believed him.
What are the peculiar features of Nazi thinking?
Ans/ The following are some of the distinctive characteristics of Nazi thought.
Hitler’s viewpoint was the same as Nazi philosophy. There was no equality between humans, only a racial hierarchy, according to this.
Blond, blue-eyed Nordic German Aryans were at the top, labelled ‘desirables,’ while Jews (undesirables) were at the bottom.
Thinkers such as Charles Darwin and Herbert Spencer shaped Hitler’s bigotry. The Nazi rationale was straightforward: ‘The strongest race would survive, while the weak would perish.
Hitler was a firm believer in Lebensraum or living space. To enhance living space, new regions have to be invaded.
The Nazis desired a Nordic Aryan civilization that was clean and healthy. It meant that even Germans deemed filthy or aberrant had no right to life.
The Nazis executed many Germans who were mentally or physically unfit under the Euthanasia Programme.
As soon as Hitler took power, he set out to rid the world of undesirables and gipsies. The Nazis then carried out their homicidal racial ideology.
Jews remained the most persecuted people in Nazi Germany.
They were dubbed “undesirables.” Hitler’s anti-Semitism was founded on pseudoscientific conceptions of race, which maintained that conversion was not a viable option. They must be entirely eradicated.
Explain why Nazi propaganda was effective in creating a hatred for Jews?
Films were developed to incite anti-Semitism toward Jews. The Jews in the film ‘The Eternal Jew’ had flowing beards and were clad in kaftans.
The Jews were dubbed vermin, rodents, and pests. Nazi propaganda likened Jews to rats.
Orthodox Jews were portrayed as Christ killers and moneylenders. Math lessons were also used to spread anti-Jewish stereotypes. Children were raised to despise Jews.
The Nazi propaganda against Jews was so strong that when people saw someone who resembled a Jew, they felt a surge of rage and loathing within them.
Explain what role women had in Nazi society. Return to Chapter 1 on the French Revolution. Write a paragraph comparing and contrasting the role of women in the two periods?
Boys were taught to be aggressive and steely-hearted, while girls were taught to be excellent mothers and raise pure-blooded Aryan offspring.
Girls were required to safeguard the integrity of the German race. They had to take care of their homes, and Nazi principles had to be instilled in the children.
Women who had ‘desirable children’ were recognised. They were given preferential care in hospitals, as well as discounts at stores, on theatre tickets, and on train prices.
Women were given honour crosses. Women received a bronze cross for four children, a silver cross for six children, and a gold cross for eight or more children.
In what ways did the Nazi state seek to establish total control over its people?
The Nazi regime attempted to impose absolute control over its people. Special forces were formed in order to regulate society in the manner desired by the Nazis.
Apart from the SA (Storm Troopers) and normal police, who wore green uniforms, the Gestapo (secret state police) and SS (protection squads), criminal police, and the Security Service were also present (SD).
They were granted extra-constitutional powers, which helped to cement the Nazi regime’s reputation as the most feared criminal state.
Torture was used in Gestapo rooms, and many were deported to concentration camps. People were detained without going through any legal channels.
Nazism and The Rise of Hitler NCERT Class 9 history chapter 3 Questions and Answers pdf. ( extra questions).
Trace any three main features of the foreign policy of Hitler?
1. Hitler became Chancellor of Germany on January 30, 1933, and established tyranny.
2. He pursued an aggressive and warlike stance against other countries from the start.
3. He withdrew from the League of Nations in 1933, reoccupied Rhineland in 1936, and united Austria and Germany in 1938 under the motto “One People, One Empire, One Leader.”
The Peace Treaty at Versailles with the Allies was a harsh and humiliating peace. Explain the statement with any three examples?
Germany was vanquished in the First World War. The Versailles Treaty with the Allies was a harsh and humiliating peace.
Germany lost its foreign possessions as well as a large portion of its European territory.
Germany lost 75% of its iron and 26% of its coal production to France and other nations.
Germany was demilitarized by the Allies in order to undermine its authority. Germany was obliged to pay £ 6 billion in compensation.
Allied soldiers held the resource-rich Rhineland until the 1920s.
Explain the three-fold plan of Hitler becoming Chancellor of Germany to consolidate the Nazi power?
1. Hitler’s three-pronged strategy included seizing the legal right to govern, smashing the country’s political opposition, and eliminating opponents inside the party.
In pursuit of first, Hitler utilised the Reichstag fire to crack down on communists.
He used emergency powers to assassinate and imprison prominent communist leaders while also suppressing civil rights.
2. The German Reichstag enacted the enabling laws in March 1933, transferring all powers from the Reichstag to the administration led by him.
Hitler next turned his focus to the other political groups.
3. He made all current and future opposition institutions illegal. By July 1933, the Nazis had become Germany’s sole recognised political party.
When did Hitler formally announce his violation of the Treaty of Versailles?
What reason did he give for this?
In March 1935, Hitler publicly declared his breach of the Treaty of Versailles.
Hitler stated that he was attempting to equalise Germany’s status with the other European powers.
Because European states had not adopted the disarmament agenda, German rearmament was required.
What was the ideology of the Nazis regarding the Jews?
Ans/ The Nazis’ anti-Jewish worldview was as follows:
Under Nazism, all schools were scrubbed and sanitised. Teachers who were discovered to be Jews or who were deemed politically untrustworthy were fired.
Children of German and Jewish origin were not permitted to sit or play together.
All unwanted children, including Jews, Gypsies, and the physically disabled, were expelled from schools.
Finally was sentenced to death in gas chambers in the 1940s.
What do you know about ‘Nazi schooling’?
All ‘Good German’ youngsters were exposed to a lengthy period of ideological training—a Nazi schooling procedure.
Textbooks in schools were revised. Racial science was established in order to legitimise Nazi notions about race. Children were taught to be obedient and submissive, to despise Jews, and to adore Hitler.
Even sports were utilised to instil a sense of anger and hostility in youth. Hitler felt that boxing made youngsters tough, robust, and manly.
What was the Nazis ideology regarding motherhood?
Children in Nazi Germany were regularly indoctrinated that women were fundamentally different from males.
It was taught that fighting for equal rights for men and women was bad and would ruin society.
The guys were trained to be aggressive, manly, and tough. The girls were instructed on how to be excellent moms.
They were meant to raise pure-blooded Aryan offspring and keep the race pure.
They had to remove themselves from Jews, care for their homes, and, above all, teach their children Nazi principles.
What were the results of the victory of Nazism in Germany?
The triumph of Nazism in Germany resulted in the abolition of democracy and the installation of tyranny.
It also resulted in militarism and war preparations.
Except for the Nazi Party, all other political parties in Germany were outlawed.
Because Nazism opposed Socialism and Communism, supporters of these ideologies were either imprisoned or executed.
Why did the USA show unwillingness to get involved in the Second World War initially? Why did it change its attitude afterwards?
The United States had refused to participate in the conflict. It did not want to confront all of the economic challenges that the First World War had produced.
It couldn’t, however, remain out of the battle for long. Japan was extending its influence to the east. It had taken over French Indo-China and was preparing to assault US naval bases in the Pacific.
When Japan backed Hitler and struck the US base at Pearl Harbor, the United States entered the Second World War.
The war concluded in May 1945, with Hitler’s defeat and the United States firing an atomic bomb on Hiroshima, Japan.
Why was the International Military Tribunal set up in Nuremberg at the end of the Second World War?
Ans/ At the close of WWII, the International Military Tribunal in Nuremberg was established to punish Nazi war criminals.
The Nazis were charged with crimes against peace, war crimes, and crimes against humanity by the Tribunal.
The Nuremberg Tribunal, on the other hand, condemned just eleven senior Nazis to death. Many more have been sentenced to life in jail.
Nazism and The Rise of Hitler NCERT Class 9 history chapter 3 Questions and Answers pdf. (Long questions)
What steps were taken by Adolf Hitler for the destruction of democracy?
Hitler took the following actions in order to destroy democracy:
1. In February 1933, a strange fire broke out in the German Parliament building, suspending civic rights forever.
The fire is alleged to have been started by Hitler’s followers, while Hitler accused his political opponents of it.
The Fire Decree of 28 February 1933 indefinitely restricted civic rights given by the Weimar Constitution, such as freedom of expression, speech, press, and assembly.
2. After Adolf Hitler turned on his adversary, the German Communists, the majority of the communists were soon carted off to the newly built extermination camps.
3. The Communists were subjected to harsh persecution. Their membership was in the thousands.
They were, however, only one of 52 types of victims persecuted by the Nazis throughout the country.
4. The historic Enabling Act was approved on March 3, 1933. The dictatorship was formed in Germany as a result of this Act.
It granted Adolf Hitler complete political and administrative authority, allowing him to bypass the German Parliament and govern by edict.
What were the main effects of Nazi rule on Germany?
Ans/ The Nazi victory had far-reaching consequences for Germany:
Hitler attempted to lead his country out of the economic crisis that had descended on Germany as a result of her loss in World War I.
Various enterprises were established to give work to the labourers. With the same goal in mind, trade was promoted.
Hitler was determined to make Germany a powerful country, and he increased his military force in every way conceivable.
Except for the Nazi Party, all political parties were outlawed. Then, in Germany, a Reign of Terror erupted. Anti-Nazi leaders were assassinated on a huge scale.
Communist parties were likewise outlawed.
Trade unions were outlawed.
What did Hitler do to overcome the economic crisis that badly hit the German economy?
1. He took significant measures toward economic restoration after establishing his dictatorship in Germany.
Hitler delegated responsibility for economic recovery to Hjalmar Schacht, an economist who aspired for full output and full employment through a state-funded work-creation programme.
2. Hitler was also an early success in foreign policy. He withdrew from the League of Nations in 1933, reoccupied the Rhineland in 1936, and united Austria and Germany in 1938 under the motto “One People, One Empire, One Leader.”
3. He then wrested German-speaking Sudentenland from Czechoslovakia and devoured the entire nation.
In all of this, he had the silent backing of England, which thought the Versailles decision was too severe.
These fast achievements at home and abroad appeared to turn the country’s fortunes around.
4. Hitler chose war as a means of avoiding the impending economic catastrophe.
Resources were to be amassed through territorial expansion. Germany attacked Poland in September 1939.
This triggered a war between France and England. In September 1940, Germany, Italy, and Japan formed the Tripartite Pact, bolstering Hitler’s claim to world authority.
5. Hitler was now on his way to completing his long-term goal of conquering Eastern Europe. He wanted to guarantee that Germans had food and a place to live.
In June 1941, Hitler launched an invasion against the Soviet Union. Hitler made a historic error by exposing the German western front to British aircraft bombardment and the eastern front to overwhelming Soviet forces.
Why is Nazism considered a calamity not only for Germany but for the entire Europe?
Ans/ Nazi philosophy stated that there was a racial hierarchy and that there was no equality amongst humans.
(a) The blond, blue-eyed Nordic German Aryans were at the top, while the Jews were somewhere towards the bottom.
(b) Nazi Germany murdered 6 million Jews, 200,000 Gypsies, 1 million Polish civilians, and 70,000 Germans.
(c) The use of force and violence was praised by Nazism. It mocked internationalism, peacekeeping, and democracy.
(d) Nazi Germany rose to become the world’s most feared criminal state. Hitler chose war as a means of avoiding the impending economic catastrophe.
(e) Poland was invaded by Germany. In September 1940, this sparked a war with France and England.