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Question 1 – Discuss how the changes in forest management in the colonial period affected the following groups of people:
(a) Shifting cultivators
(b) Nomadic and pastoralist communities
(c) Firms trading in timber/forest produce
(d) Plantation owners
(e) Kings/British officials engaged in a shikar.
Ans) (a) Shifting Cultivators: Shifting cultivation was a common agricultural method in Asia, Africa, and South America. In a cycle, parts of the forest are chopped and burned.
Following the first monsoon rains, seeds are put in the ashes and crops are grown. Cultivation will continue for a few years.
The forest is then allowed to develop in the region for a period of 12 to 18 years. They are then sliced and burned once again. Shifting cultivation is the name given to this rotation.
Shifting cultivation was prohibited by the Colonial administration because European foresters believed it would injure the woods and result in the loss of precious timber.
When Shifting cultivation was adopted, the government also found it difficult to calculate taxes.
Many Shifting growers were moved as a result of the restriction. Many of them were forced to shift careers. A few Shifting growers protested the prohibition.
(b) Nomadic and Pastoralist Communities : Nomadic and pastoralist groups roamed India and Africa’s highlands and deserts, as well as the plains and plateaus.
During the Colonial era, pastoralist groups were a significant portion of the populations of both nations.
When the Colonial administration took control of the woods, it had a significant impact on the pastoralist populations.
Pastoralist tribes were continually on the move with their animals.
When the government cleared forests in order to develop agriculture, the Nomads lost grazing fields for their livestock. The pastoralist groups suffered greatly as a result of this.
(c) Firms Trading in Timber/Forest Produce : Large swaths of forest have been chopped down for wood and forest products.
The Colonial Government was concerned about this rash tree-felling. In 1865, it enacted the Indian Forest Act. In the year 1878, this Act was revised.
The woodlands were separated into three categories under this amendment: reserved, protected, and village forests.
Villagers and local businesses trading in timber and forest products were barred from taking anything from the finest trees in the reserved or protected forests. This had a significant impact on the traders.
(d) Plantation Owners : The Colonial administration provided vast sections of forest to European planters at a relatively low cost. Natural forests were destroyed to make way for the cultivation of tea, coffee, and rubber trees.
These goods were in high demand throughout Europe. These plantations were gated off, and others were not permitted to enter.
(e) Kings/British Officials engaged in Shikar : Forest laws banned the hunting of deer, partridges, and small animals.
People who lived near the forests were deprived of their livelihood and food because of this ban.
Despite the restriction, hunting large animals such as tigers, leopards, and wolves became a sport for the monarchs and the British.
The British believed that by destroying hazardous animals, they would be able to civilise India. Certain animal species were nearly extinct as a result of the British and Kings’ uncontrolled killing.
Question 2 – What are the similarities between the colonial management of the forests in Bastar and in Java?
Ans/ The following are some parallels between colonial forest management in Bastar and Java.
a) Colonial administration in Bastar: In 1905, the colonial authorities suggested reserving two-thirds of the woods and prohibiting shifting agriculture, hunting, and harvesting forest products.
The people were suffering as a result of rising rents and colonial authorities’ desire for free labour and products.
The peasants could stay in the restricted forests but had to labour for free for the forest service, cutting and transporting trees and protecting them from forest fires. They were known as woodland settlements.
b) Colonial management in Java: Villagers in Java were fined for grazing livestock, conveying commodities without a licence, or travelling on forest routes.
The Dutch required help cutting trees, transporting wood, and preparing sleepers. They implemented the blcmdongdiensten system.
According to this arrangement, they initially imposed rents on forest property that was being cultivated, and then some communities were spared from paying rent provided they worked together to supply free labour and buffaloes for cutting and hauling timber. It reminded me of ‘forest communities.’
Question 3 – Between 1880 and 1920, forest cover in the Indian subcontinent declined by 9.7 million hectares, from 108.6 million hectares to 98.9 million hectares. Discuss the role of the following factors in this decline:
Adivasis and other peasant users.
Ans/ a) Railroads : As trade and transportation developed, the growth of railways became necessary. Wood was required as a fuel source for the steam engines.
Wood was also required for the construction of railway line sleepers, which kept the tracks together.
As a result, forests were destroyed in order to furnish the wood required for railway development.
b) Shipbuilding :The British government need massive ships for the Royal Navy. Ships are made of solid, long-lasting wood.
When the oak woods of England began to dwindle, the British turned their attention to India’s forest resources. Large amounts of lumber were shipped from India to England for shipbuilding, diminishing forests in India.
c) Agricultural expansion : As the world’s population grew throughout the ages, so did the demand for food. More land had to be planted to supply the rising demand for food.
Forests had to be burned and placed under the plough if additional land was to be farmed. As a result, forests were removed to make way for agricultural growth.
d) Commercial farming : During the Colonial period, there was a rise in demand for commercial crops such as jute, sugar, wheat, and cotton.
Europe needs more food grain to feed its rising population as well as more raw materials to fuel its expanding industrial output. As a result, forests were burned to make way for commercial cultivation.
e) Tea/Coffee plantations : The Colonial administration provided vast sections of forest to European planters at a relatively low cost.
Natural woods were removed to plant tea and coffee because these commodities were in high demand in Europe.
Adivasis, as well as other peasant users In the 1600s, just one-sixth of India’s area, was under agriculture. As the population has grown fast, more than half of the area is now under agriculture.
Peasants expanded the borders of agriculture as food need increased, clearing forests and cultivating fresh territory.
f) Adivasis and other peasant users : During the colonial period, the forest service contracted Adivasis to harvest trees and build railway sleepers.
However, the Adivasis were not permitted to chop down trees in order to erect their own huts.
Question 4 – Why are forests affected by wars?
Ans/ The wars affected the forests. The First and Second World Wars had a significant influence on the woodlands.
To meet the demands of the war, the working plans were abandoned and trees were felled.
In Java, soon before the Japanese came, the Dutch used a “scorched earth” approach, destroying sawmills and burning massive quantities of teak wood.
When the Japanese arrived in Java, they used the woods to meet their own requirements.
Class 9 history chapter 4 question and answers pdf | Class 9 history chapter 4 extra questions (Short).
What is deforestation? Why is it considered harmful?
Answer: (a) Deforestation refers to the absence of forests. Forests are being removed for industrial purposes, agriculture, pastures, and fuelwood.
(b) Forest clearing is damaging since forests provide us with many goods such as paper, wood for our desks, tables, doors, and windows, colours for our clothes, spices in our food, gum, honey, coffee, tea, and rubber.
Forests are home to a variety of animals and birds. They protect our natural variety and life support systems. That is why deforestation is seen as detrimental.
What is the new development in forestry?
Answer: Since the 1980s, governments throughout Asia and Africa have recognised that scientific forestry and the strategy of keeping forest inhabitants out of forests has resulted in several disputes.
The preservation of forests, rather than the harvesting of timber, has become a more essential priority.
Many deep forests have persisted in India, from Mizoram to Kerala, solely because villages safeguarded them in holy groves such as saunas, devarakudu, kan, rai, and so on.
Instead of relying on forest guards, several towns have begun patrolling their own woodlands, with each household taking turns.
Today, local forest communities and environmentalists are considering various types of forest management.
Why did the people of Bastar rise in revolt against the British?
Answer: They protested because the British government attempted to reserve the woods, denying the locals the opportunity to harvest forest products and practise shifting farming.
Furthermore, residents were subjected to rising land rents and frequent demands for free labour and products from colonial officials.
Bastar residents are unable to harvest forest items.
Famines in 1839-1800 and 1907-1908 compelled people to revolt against British rulers.
Question 4: How did the growth of railways in India beginning in the 1850s create a new need for timber?
Answer: Beginning in the 1850s, the expansion of railways produced a new need. Railways were critical for colonial trade and imperial force transportation.
Wood was required as fuel for locomotives, and sleepers were required to keep railway lines together. Each mile of railway track necessitated the use of between 1,760 and 2,000 sleepers.
The railway network grew fast beginning in the 1860s. The length of the railway tracks grew dramatically. As the number of railway lines expanded, so did the demand for timber.
More and more trees were cut down. Individuals were granted contracts to deliver timber.
These contractors were indiscriminate in their tree-cutting practises. Forests were quickly cleared away from railway tracks.
5. What exactly was the Blandongdiensten system?
Answer: The Dutch need wood from Java for shipbuilding and railway construction. In 1882, alone, 280,000 sleepers were transported from Java.
All of this, however, needed labour to chop the trees, haul the logs, and prepare the sleepers.
The Dutch first levied rents on forest property that was being cultivated, and then exempted some settlements from these charges provided they worked together to offer free labour and buffaloes for cutting and hauling timber.
This was referred to as the blandongdiensten system.
Question 6: Name three reasons why farming grew fast throughout the colonial period?
Answer: Cultivation grew quickly during the colonial period because:
Commercial crops such as jute, sugar, wheat, and cotton were pushed by the British.
They attempted to boost agricultural product yield.
They attempted to boost their revenue and thereby the state’s revenues.
Question 7: When was India’s Forest Act passed? Why did it inflict suffering in communities around the country?
Answer: The Forest Act was passed in 1865 and revised in 1878 and 1927.
It classified the woods into three types: reserved forests, protected forests, and village forests. The best woodlands were referred to as reserved forests.
Villagers were not permitted to remove anything from the forests, not even for personal use.
The locals suffered greatly as a result of this. All of their regular activities, including chopping wood for their homes, grazing their cattle, harvesting fruits and roots, hunting, and fishing, were made illegal.
People were now compelled to steal wood from trees. If they were apprehended by forest guards, they were punished.
Women were not allowed to collect fuelwood from the forests because forest guards and constables harassed them.
Question 8: Why did the Dutch pursue a “scorched earth policy” during the war?
Answer: During the conflict, the Dutch employed a “scorched earth policy” because:
The First and Second World Wars had a significant influence on woodlands.
Working plans were abandoned in India, and trees were hacked down at will to supply British need for war supplies.
In Java, right before the Japanese took over, the Dutch used the’scorched earth strategy,’ demolishing saw mills and burning vast heaps of gigantic teak logs to prevent them from falling into Japanese hands.
Question 9: What suggestions did Dietrich Brandis make for improving India’s forests?
Answer: Dietrich Brandis proposed:
It was necessary to adhere to a correct system.
Conservation science had to be taught to people.
Tree felling and grazing land have to be preserved.
Forest usage regulations should be established. Anyone who disobeyed the rules deserved to be punished.
Brandis established the Indian Forest Service in 1864.
He also contributed to the creation of the Indian Forest Act of 1865.
Question 10: Define the phrase “scientific forestry.”?
Answer: Various types of natural forests were felled in scientific forestry. Instead, one variety of trees was planted in neat rows in their place.
This is known as a plantation. Forest authorities inspected the woods, assessed the area covered by different species of trees, and devised forest management plans.
They planned how much of the plantation land would be chopped down each year. The woodland area was then cleared and replanted.
Question 11: Briefly discuss the Indonesian Saminist movement?
Answer: Surontiko Samin of Randublatung village, a teak forest community, began contesting the state’s ownership of the forest around 1890.
He contended that because the state did not create the wind, water, soil, or wood, it could not claim ownership of them.
Soon, a huge movement arose. Samin’s sons-in-law were among those who helped organise it. By 1907, 3,000 households had embraced his ideals.
When the Dutch arrived to survey their property, some Saminists protested by lying down on it, while others refused to pay taxes, penalties, or labour.
Class 9 history chapter 4 question and answers pdf | Class 9 history chapter 4 extra questions (Long).
1. Why did commercial forestry become so significant during British rule?
Answer: Commercial forestry grew in importance during the British occupation because:
By the early nineteenth century, England’s oak woods were dwindling.
This presented a dilemma for the Royal Navy’s lumber supply.
English ships could not be produced without a steady supply of solid and durable timber, and imperial power could not be preserved or sustained without ships.
Commercial forestry was regarded essential in India before to 1850 for the reasons stated above.
By the 1820s, search groups had been dispatched to examine India’s forest riches.
These parties give the thumbs up to commercial forestry in India.
Within a decade, trees had been cut on a gigantic scale, and significant amounts of lumber had been shipped from India.
From the 1850s forward, the expansion of railways produced a new need for wood.
The colonial authorities in India believed that railways were necessary for successful colonial internal administration, colonial trade, and the rapid movement of imperial soldiers.
To run locomotives, wood was required as fuel, and sleepers were also required to keep the track together when laying railway lines.
Question 2: How do woods benefit the villagers?
Answer: The woodlands are beneficial to the residents in the following ways:
People in forested regions use forest products—roots, leaves, fruits, and timbers—for a variety of purposes.
Fruits and roots are nutritious and beneficial to health, especially during the monsoon season before the harvest.
Herbs are utilised for medicine, timber for agricultural equipment such as yokes and ploughs, and bamboo for fences as well as baskets and umbrellas.
A dry scooped-out gourd can be used as a water container.
The forest has almost everythingleaves may be sewn together to form disposable plates and cups, the siadi (Baubinia uablii) creeper can be used to construct ropes, and the prickly bark of the semur (silk-cotton) tree can be used to produce ropes.
Pressing the fruit of the mahua tree yields oil for cooking and lighting lights.
Question 3: Where exactly is Bastar located? How did the Bastani people react to the British forest policies?
Answer: Bastar is located in southern Chhattisgarh, bordering Odisha, Andhra Pradesh, and Maharashtra.
The Indrawati River runs through Bastar from east to west. Bastar’s core region is a plateau.
The Chhattisgarh plain is to the north of this plateau, while the Godavari plain lies to the south.
When the colonial authorities proposed reserving two-thirds of the forest and prohibiting shifting farming, hunting, and collecting of forest produce in 1905, the people of Bastar were alarmed.
People began to assemble and discuss these topics in village councils, bazaars, and festivals, or anywhere the headmen and priests of multiple villages could be found.
Mango boughs, a lump of dirt, chiles, and arrows began to circulate between communities in 1910. These were messages encouraging the peasants to revolt against the British.
Every town chipped in to cover the costs of the insurrection. Bazaars were looted, officials’ and traders’ homes were ransacked, schools and police stations were burned and robbed, and food was redistributed.
The majority of people who were attacked had some connection to the colonial state and its harsh policies.
Question 4: Discuss the causes of deforestation in India during the colonial era?
Answer:Deforestation was more systematic and widespread during colonial administration. Cultivation developed fast throughout the colonial period for a variety of reasons.
The British promoted the cultivation of economic crops such as jute, sugar, wheat, and cotton.
In Europe, where foodgrains were needed to support the rising urban population and raw materials were required for industrial production, demand for these crops surged in the nineteenth century, and forests were felled to supply the need for foodgrains and raw materials.
The spread of railways from 1850 created a new demand.
To run locomotives, wood was needed as fuel and to lay railway lines sleepers were necessary to hold the tracks together.
From the 1860s, the railway network expanded rapidly. By 1890, about 25,500 km of track had been laid.
The government gave out contracts to individuals and the contractors began cutting the trees rapidly. Forests around the tracks disappeared.
Large areas of natural forests were cleared for tea, coffee and rubber plantations to meet Europe’s growing need for these commodities.