In the article, we will look at the NCERT Class 9 History Chapter 5 Question and Answers, Pastoralists in the Modern World. if you want to learn about more history ( social science ) Chapters, you can check them out here.
Explain why nomadic tribes need to move from one place to another. What are the advantages to the environment of this continuous movement?
Nomads were people who travelled from one area to another as a group with all of their goods.
These nomads wandered from place to place in search of food and a way to support themselves.
Nomadic pastoralists kept goats, sheep, camels, and cattle in their herds.
The major goal of their frequent migration was to find fodder for their cattle.
The nomads alternated between grazing areas in the summer and winter.
They mainly resided on the low hills in the winter, and their herds were fed by the dry scrub woodlands.
During the winter, they resided in the low hills because the high mountains were covered in snow.
During the summer, the nomads packed their possessions, gathered their herds, and began travelling for the northern mountains around the end of April.
The mountains were transformed into carpets of lush green grass when the snow melted.
their herds will have plenty of grass to graze on. As a result, the nomadic pastoralists alternated between summer and winter grazing areas each year.
They transferred their herds and flock to new sites when the pasture became exhausted or unworkable in one location.
The nomads’ constant migration with their grazing herds ensured that natural pastures did not become overgrazed.
The movement allowed for the regrowth of grass and plants, which helped to protect the environment.
Discuss why the colonial government in India brought in the following laws. In each case, explain how the law changed the lives of pastoralists:
Waste Land Regulations: The colonial administration took over uncultivated land and distributed it to selected individuals.
The Waste Land rules were the name of this rule. It went into effect in the middle of the nineteenth century.
The government-appointed some of the people who were given this land as headmen. The colonial authority was guaranteed of their devotion and support as a result of this.
The grazing grounds that were taken over were really used by nomadic pastoralists as wastelands.
The pastoralists lost their grazing areas when the new proprietors brought this wasteland under cultivation, and they were put through a lot of suffering.
Acts Concerning Forests: The Indian Forest Acts were passed by the colonial government in 1865. In the year 1878, this Act was revised.
The forests were divided into three categories as a result of this amendment: reserved, protected, and village forests.
Forests that supplied commercially valuable timber were frequently included in the reserved areas.
Because no one was permitted access to these forests, the Forest Act ensured that the complete richness of these forests could only be enjoyed by the colonists.
Nomads were not permitted to graze their animals in these woodlands under this Act. To graze their cattle in a handful of these woodlands, they had to obtain a permit.
They were penalised or punished if they overstayed their permit time. The nomads were left with no grass for their herds as a result of this.
Criminal Tribes Act: The colonial government in India passed the Criminal Tribes Act in the year 1871. The Act earmarked communities of craftsmen, traders and pastoralists as Criminal Tribes.
These communities were forced to live only in notified village settlements when this Act came into force. They needed a permit to move out of this specified village.
The village police also kept a continuous watch over them. The moving nomads disturbed the colonists. They wanted the natives in fixed places with fixed rights so that they could be easily controlled.
The Criminal Tribes Act was a slap in the face to the hardworking, honest nomads. Their entire way of life had been influenced.
Pastoralists were required to pay taxes on the animals they grazed on the pastures. The Grazing Tax was the name for this.
Give reasons to explain why the Maasai community lost their grazing lands?
The Maasais were a cattle-herding tribe. They mostly lived in East Africa. In Southern Kenya, there were 300,000 Maasais and 150,000 in Tanzania.
The Maasais occupied a large area of land stretching from northern Kenya to northern Tanzania’s steppes. The steppes’ rich green grass supplied enough food for their cows.
European colonial powers seized Africa in the nineteenth century and competed for geographical holdings. They established boundaries and took over the country previously occupied by the Maasais.
About 60% of the Maasai’s pre-colonial territories were lost. They were confined to a dry zone with erratic rainfall and deplorable pastures.
The Maasais’ grazing areas were continually lost, affecting their lives in times of drought and even reshaping their social relationships.
In East Africa, the British colonial authorities pushed local peasant communities to develop their farming operations.
The Maasai group lost its grazing pastures once more as pasturelands were converted to farmed areas.
Grazing land was also converted into Game Reserves by the colonists.
Pastoralists were not permitted to enter these protected areas. As a result, the Maasai’s grazing areas were confiscated once more.
The Maasais were eventually confined to limited swaths of land. In the designated regions, they couldn’t hunt or graze their animals.
Fodder became scarce as a result of the confinement to narrow areas. Thousands of Maasai livestock died as a result of malnutrition and sickness.
The Maasis have suffered greatly as a result of the loss of their best grazing pastures and water resources.
There are many similarities in the way in which the modern world forced changes in the lives of pastoral communities in India and East Africa. Write about any two examples of changes that were similar for Indian pastoralists and the Maasai herders?
(a) By the mid-nineteenth century, many forest acts had been passed in India.
Some forests that produced commercially valuable timber, such as deodar and sal, were designated as “reserved” as a result of these actions.
These forests were off-limits to pastoralists.
Pastoralists were permitted some customary rights in protected woods, but their movement was restricted.
Large swaths of pasture land in Maasailand have been turned into game reserves.
Pastoralists were not allowed to enter the reserves, nor could they hunt or graze their herds.
(b) Forest Acts had an impact on pastoralists’ lives. They couldn’t get into several of the forests that had previously provided feed for their livestock.
They needed a permit to enter, and the number of days they could stay in the forest was limited.
Pastoral groups in Africa were compelled to keep within the reserves’ boundaries.
They couldn’t leave with their stock unless they got special permission. Permits were tough to come by.
Class 9 History Chapter 5 Question and Answers | Pastoralists in the Modern World | Class 9 History Chapter 5 Extra Questions ( Short )
Question 1: Who are nomadic pastoralists?
Nomads are persons who do not dwell in one place and instead migrate from one location to another to earn a living.
Nomadic pastoralists on the road with their herds of goats and sheep, or camels and cattle, may be seen in various places of India.
They wander from place to place in quest of new pastures for their goat and sheep flocks.
Question 2: What happened to the stock of animals when grazing fields were converted to cultivated lands?
As pasturelands were destroyed by ploughing, the existing animal herd was forced to forage on whatever grazing area remained.
This resulted in the intense grazing of these pastures on a constant basis. Typically, nomadic pastoralists grazed their livestock in one location before moving to another.
These pastoral excursions allowed for the spontaneous regrowth of plants. When limitations on pastoral migrations were established, grazing fields became consistently occupied, and the quality of pastures degraded.
This resulted in an even greater scarcity of feed for animals and the degeneration of animal stock. During times of scarcity and hunger, underfed animals perished in enormous numbers.
What do you know about the lifestyle of Gujjars of Garhwal and Kumaun?
Gujjar cattle herders in Garhwal and Kumaun travelled to the dry woods of the bhabar in the winter and to the high meadows, the Bugyals, in the summer.
Many of them were originally from Jammu and moved to the UP highlands in quest of rich pastures in the nineteenth century.
This periodic travel between summer and winter pastures was common in many Himalayan pastoral tribes.
Question 4: Describe the lifestyle of pastoralists in India’s Mountains?
(a) The Gujjar Bakarwals of Jammu and Kashmir, the Gaddi shepherds of Himachal Pradesh, the Gujjar cattle herders of Garhwal and Kumaun, the Bhotiyas, Sherpas, and Kinnauris migrate regularly between their summer and winter grazing areas, following the seasonal migration cycle.
(a) They adapt their movements to seasonal changes and make efficient use of available pastures in various locations. When pastures become depleted or insecure in one location, animals are moved to new pastures.
Question 5: Describe the key characteristics of Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh’s pastoral nomads?
We discovered a parched central plateau covered in stone and grass in Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh, populated by cows, goats, and sheepherders.
The Kuruman and Kurubas raised sheep and goats and sold woven blankets, while the Gollas herded cattle. They lived in the woods, farmed little plots of land, participated in a variety of petty trades, and tended to their herbs.
These two southern republics’ pastoral nomads lived near the forests, farmed tiny plots of land, engaged in various little trades, and looked after the herds.
Question 6: Identify the African pastoral communities. Where can you find them? What do they do for a living?
Some pastoral communities in Africa include the Bedouins, Berbers, Maasai, Somali, Boran, and Turkana.
The majority of them live in semi-arid grasslands or dry deserts, where rainfed agriculture is impossible.
They breed cattle, camels, goats, and other animals and sell their products like milk and meat. Others make a living through commerce and transportation.
Some combine pastoral work with agriculture, while others work odd jobs to augment their little and precarious wages.
Question 7: How did pastoralists’ lives alter during colonial rule?
The following were the changes that occurred in the lives of pastoralists during colonial rule:
Pastoralists’ lives altered considerably during colonial authority. Their grazing land had shrunk.
The amount of money they had to pay was raised.
Their motions were controlled.
Their agricultural stock deteriorated, and their trades and crafts suffered.
Question 8: What elements did the pastoralists have to keep in mind in order to survive?
Pastoralists have to keep the following elements in mind in order to survive:
They needed to know how long the herds could stay in one place and where they could find water and grass.
They needed to plan their moves and make sure they could go across different regions.
They also needed to establish relationships with farmers along the road so that the herds could graze on harvested fields and fertilise the soil.
They also had to combine a variety of activities—cultivation, trading, and herding—to make a livelihood.
Question 9: How did the Forest Acts affect pastoralists’ lives?
The Forest Acts affect pastoralists in the following ways:
(a) Forest Acts were created to protect and maintain forests for commercially valuable timber.
(b) They were no longer permitted to visit numerous forests that had previously given valuable feed for their cattle.
Even in the regions where they were permitted to enter, their movements were restricted.
(c) They were given licences that allowed them to enter and depart woodlands.
They couldn’t stay in the woodlands as long as they wanted since the permit limited the amount of time they could be lawfully in the forest.
They were subject to fives if they remained too long.
What was the impact of frequent drought on the pasture lands of the Maasai community?
Drought has had an impact on the lives of pastoralists all over the world. Cattle are likely to starve unless they can be transferred to regions where feed is available when rains fail and meadows are dry.
However, beginning with the colonial period, the Maasai were limited to a certain region, contained within a reserve, and banned from roaming in search of pastures.
They were separated from the greatest grazing pastures and forced to dwell in a semi-arid region prone to periodic droughts.
Because they were unable to relocate their livestock to pastures, a substantial number of Maasai cattle perished of famine and illness during the drought years.
An investigation in 1930 revealed that the Maasai in Kenya had 720,000 livestock, 820,000 sheep, and 171,000 donkeys.
Over half of the livestock in the Maasai Reserve died in just two years of severe drought, 1933 and 1934.
Who were the Banjaras?
Another well-known group of graziers were the Banjaras. Banjaras were nomadic people.
They were discovered in villages throughout Uttar Pradesh, Punjab, Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh, and Maharashtra.
They travelled vast distances in search of decent pastureland for their cattle, selling plough cattle and other items to locals in return for grain and fodder.
Question 12: What type of lives did the colonial government’s nominated chiefs lead?
The colonial government’s selected leaders frequently gained fortune over time.
They had a steady income from which they could purchase animals, goods, and land. They made loans to needy neighbours who needed money to pay their taxes.
Many of them began to settle in towns and engage in commerce. Their wives and children remained in the villages to care for the livestock.
These leaders were able to endure the damage caused by war and famine.
They could acquire animals when their herd was reduced since they possessed both pastoral and non-pastoral revenue.
Explain any three laws which were introduced by the colonial government in India, which changed the lives of pastoralists?
1) Wasteland Rules were adopted in various sections of the country beginning in the mid-nineteenth century.
Uncultivated lands were taken over and distributed to selected persons under these guidelines.
Various Forest Acts were also adopted in various provinces by the mid-nineteenth century.
2) Some woods that produced important timber, such as deodar or sal, were designated as ‘Reserved’ under these Acts.
These woodlands were not accessible to pastoralists. Other woods were designated as ‘protected.’
3) The ‘Criminal Tribes Act was passed by the colonial administration of India in 1871. Many groups of craftsmen, traders, and pastoralists were designated as Criminal Tribes as a result of this Act.
They were described as criminals by nature and birth. Following the implementation of this legislation, these groups were intended to dwell solely in designated village settlements.
4) To increase its revenue, the colonial authority sought every conceivable source of taxes. As a result, taxes were levied on land, canal water, salt, trade items, and even animals (the Grazing Tax).
Question 14: Write a brief note about the Jammu and Kashmir Gujjar Bakarwals?
The Gujjar Bakarwals of Jammu and Kashmir are excellent goats and sheepherders. In the nineteenth century, many of them travelled to this region in quest of grass for their livestock.
They gradually established themselves in the area throughout the decades, moving seasonally between their summer and winter grazing sites.
In the winter, when the high mountains were covered in snow, they resided in the low slopes of the Siwalik range with their herds.
Their cows were fed by the arid scrub woodlands here. They began their northern march to their summer grazing pastures at the end of April.
By the end of September, the Bakarwals were back on the move, this time on their way down to their winter camp. The cattle grazed on the low hills when the high mountains were blanketed with snow.
Class 9 History Chapter 5 Question and Answers | Pastoralists in the Modern World | Class 9 History Chapter 5 Extra Questions ( Long ).
Question No. 1: Where do the Raikas reside? Mention aspects of their economy and lifestyle.
The Raikas resided in Rajasthan’s deserts. Their economy and way of life have the following characteristics:
Because the rainfall in Rajasthan was scarce and unpredictable, the Raikas had a tough time cultivating their landholdings. Every year, their crop varied.
No crop could be cultivated over large swaths of land. As a result, the Raikas merged farming and pastoralism.
During the monsoons, the Raikas of Banner, Jaisalmer, Jodhpur, and Bikaner lived in their home villages where there was plenty of grazing.
By October, when these grazing lands were dry and drained, the Raikas had moved on in search of new pasture and water, only to return the next rainy season.
One clan of Raikas, known as Maru (desert) Raikas, herded camels, while another raised goats and lambs.
As a result, we can claim that the Raikas’ existence as pastoral tribes was supported by careful consideration of a variety of circumstances.
They needed to know how long the herds could stay in one region of Rajasthan and where they could find water and grass in Rajasthan and neighbouring provinces.
Question 2: Describe the basic aspects of living in Maharashtra’s Dhangars pastoral group.
The Dhangars fundamental way of life is as follows:
The Dhangars were a significant pastoral group in Maharashtra. In the early twentieth century, the population of this region was around 4,67,000.
The majority of Dhangars were shepherds, but some were blanket weavers and buffalo herders.
During the monsoon, the Dhangar shepherds resided in Maharashtra’s central plateau.
This was a semi-arid region with poor soil and little rainfall. It was surrounded by prickly brush. Only dry crops such as bajra may be grown here.
The middle plateau became a wide grazing field for the Dhangar flocks during the monsoon.
By October, the Dhangars had harvested their bajra and were on their way west.
They arrived at the Konkan after a month’s march. This was a thriving agricultural region with abundant rains and fertile soil. Konkan villagers greeted the shepherds here.
Question 3: Describe the key aspects of the lives of Himachal Pradesh’s Gaddi shepherds?
The following are the primary characteristics of the lives of Himachal Pradesh’s Gaddi shepherds:
The Gaddi shepherds of Himachal Pradesh have a seasonal migratory cycle in different sections of the highlands.
They migrated below in the winter and higher in the summer to the valley. Gaddi shepherds also spend the winter grazing their flocks in scrub woods in the low elevations of the Siwalik range.
They travelled north in April and spent the summer in Lahul and Spiti. Many of them moved on to higher mountain pastures after the snow melted and the high passes were free.
By September, Gaddi shepherds had begun to return. They stopped again on the way to the villages of Lahul and Spiti to reap their Kharif crop and sow their Rabi crop.
Then, with their flock, they descend to their lower territories or plains on the Siwalik highlands.
With the arrival of summer the following April, Gaddi shepherds resumed their march to the summer meadows with their sheep and goats.
Question 4: Describe the social organisation of the Maasai tribe in pre-colonial times.
What changes happened in the Maasai community during the colonial period?
Maasai civilization was separated into two social groups: elders and warriors.
The elders comprised the ruling group and gathered in councils on a regular basis to deliberate on the business of the community and settle conflicts.
The warriors were primarily responsible for the tribe’s safety. They guarded the community and organised livestock raids.
Raiding was crucial in a civilization where livestock was valuable. Raids were used to establish the dominance of various pastoral tribes.
When young men demonstrated their manliness by plundering other people’s livestock, they were recognised as members of the warrior class.
When young men demonstrated their manliness by plundering the livestock of other pastoral communities and fighting in conflicts, they were recognised as members of the warrior class.
They were, nevertheless, subordinate to the elders’ authority.
To handle the Maasai affairs, the British enacted a number of policies that had far-reaching consequences.
They nominated chiefs from several Maasai sub-groups to be in charge of the tribe’s affairs. The British set different raiding and fighting limitations.
As a result, the traditional authority of both elders and warriors was harmed.
Question 5: How did Indian pastoralists deal with the changes wrought by British colonial officials?
Pastoralists’ lives altered considerably during colonial authority. Their grazing grounds were reduced, their movements were restricted, and the amount of income they had to pay rose.
Because there was not enough grass to sustain a big number of cattle, several ranchers lowered the number of animals in their herds.
When access to previous grazing sites became restricted, others explored new pastures. Camel and sheep herding Raikas, for example, could no longer go into Sindh to graze their camels on the banks of the Indus, as they had done previously.
They have been migrating to Haryana in recent years, where sheep may graze on agricultural fields after the crops have been harvested.
This is the time of year when the fields require the manure that the animals give.
Over time, some of the wealthier pastoralists began to acquire property and settle down, abandoning their nomadic lifestyle.
Some were permanent peasants who cultivated land, while others engaged in more extensive commerce.
Many impoverished pastoralists, on the other hand, relied on moneylenders to make ends meet.
They had to give up their livestock and sheep at times and become labourers, labouring on farms or in small cities.