Class 9 History Chapter 6 Question Answers | NCERT Peasants and Farmers | Social Science.

In this article, we will look at Class 9 History Chapter 6 Question Answers NCERT Peasants and Farmers.

Peasants and Farmers will educate you about peasants and farmers, with such a specific focus on three distinct nations. You’ll learn about the little cottagers in England, wheat farmers in the United States, and opium growers in Bengal.

Question-1) Explain briefly what the open field system meant to rural people in eighteenth-century England?

Solution: Examine the system from the perspective of:

A Rich Farmer: When the price of wool increased on the global market in the sixteenth century, wealthy farmers desired to increase their wool output in order to benefit.

They were keen to develop their sheep breeds and provide them with nutritious nutrition. They were eager to get possession of big expanses of land in compact blocks in order to promote breeding.

As a result, they began separating and enclosing common land and erecting hedges around their holdings to keep their property apart from that of others.

They pushed away people who lived in modest cottages on the commons and barred the impoverished from entering the fenced fields.

A Labourer: The labourers were deprived of their privileges and pushed off the land, so they tramped in search of work.

They went from the Midlands to the southern areas of England. This was the most densely farmed region, and agricultural labourers were in high demand.

However, the impoverished were unable to find stable employment elsewhere.

A Peasant Woman: Peasants farmed on small plots of land surrounding the village where they resided.

Each villager was assigned a number of strips to grow at the start of each year during a public assembly.

These strips were usually of diverse quality and typically positioned in various locations, not adjacent to each other.

The goal was to provide everyone with a mix of excellent and terrible land.

Question-2) Explain briefly the factors, which led to the enclosures in England?

Solution: The following things contributed to the enclosures in England:

*) Enclosure in England was prompted by a rising population and, as a result, rising demand for food grains and other commodities.

*) Rising agricultural product prices, such as wool, wheat, milk, fruits, and so forth, also aided in the promotion of enclosures in England.

*) Foodgrain prices skyrocketed as a result of industrialization and military requirements, necessitating initiatives to expand output.

*) Enclosures were deemed required in the nineteenth century in order to make long-term investments in land and organise agricultural rotations to enhance the soil.

*) Enclosures also permitted the wealthier landowners to extend their holdings and produce for the market.

Question-3) Why were threshing machines opposed by the poor in England?

Solution:
Food grain prices were high during the Napoleonic Wars, therefore farmers increased production aggressively.

Fearing a labour scarcity, they began purchasing the new threshing machines that had entered the market.

They grumbled about labourers’ arrogance, their drinking habits, and the difficulties of forcing them to work.

They hoped that the machines would help them lessen their reliance on workers.

Thousands of troops returned to the countryside after the Napoleonic Wars ended.

They have to find alternate employment in order to live.

However, during this time, grain from Europe began to flood into England, causing prices to fall and an Agricultural Depression to emerge.

Anxious, landowners began limiting the amount of land they cultivated and demanding that grain imports be halted.

They attempted to reduce pay and the number of workers hired.

Unemployed people tramped from town to hamlet, while those with precarious occupations lived in terror of losing their jobs.

At this time, the Captain Swing riots were spreading over the countryside.

Threshing machines have become a symbol of harsh times for the impoverished.

Question-4) Who was Captain Swing? What did the name symbolize or represent?

Solution: Captain Swing was a mythical name mentioned in the letters.

During the Swing Riots of 1830, the appellation Captain Swing was attached to some (but not many) of the threatening letters.

These were widespread demonstrations by impoverished farmworkers in England’s agricultural south, and they had a number of structural factors.

Farmers were the major targets of the protesting masses, whose threshing equipment they smashed or demolished and petitioned for salary increases.

They also required that their victims provide food, money, or alcohol (or all three).

They attempted to recruit local parish authorities (and even magistrates) to enhance amounts of poor assistance whenever possible.

Question-5) What was the impact of the westward expansion of settlers in the USA?

The following was the influence of the westward expansion of the settlers in the United States.

(a) Settlers’ westward expansion resulted in the displacement of native tribes. They were forced westward, beyond the Mississippi River.

(b) The settlers began large-scale agriculture. They chopped and burned woods, dug out stumps, cleared areas for farming, and erected log cabins in the forest clearings.

After that, they cleared wider regions and built fences around the fields. They tilled the ground and sowed grain and wheat.

As a result, agriculture was pursued at the expense of grasslands and woodlands.

(c) The settlers moved further west to discover the fresh territory and cultivate a new crop.

After the 1860s, people crossed the Mississippi River to the Great Plains.

They began cultivating wheat and quickly transformed this region into one of America’s key wheat-producing areas.

Question-6) What were the advantages and disadvantages of the use of mechanical harvesting machines in the USA?

Solution: The following were the benefits of using mechanical harvesting devices in the United States:

1.) Wheat was in high demand and at a premium price. This new equipment enabled farmers to clear large swaths of land fast, break up the soil, remove vegetation, and prepare the field for agriculture.

2.) The task might be completed in a shorter amount of time and with fewer labourers.

3.) Four workers could plough, sow, and harvest 2,000 to 4,000 acres of wheat in a season using power-driven gear.

However, there were certain drawbacks for the poorest farmers as well.

1.)They were thrown out of their jobs and they lost their means of livelihood.

2. )Many of them bought this machine too but it adversely affected them as the machines were expensive and once the demand crossed its limit there was enough surplus grain in the market.

3. ) Thus, farmers needed to pay back the loan they had taken from banks to buy these machines, and the farmers had no money.

Question-7) What lessons can we draw from the conversion of the countryside in the USA from a bread basket to a dust bowl?

Solution:

At the end of the eighteenth century, when common fields were being enclosed in England, established agriculture had not yet evolved on a large scale in the United States.

Forests occupied roughly 800 million acres, whereas grasslands occupied 600 million acres. The majority of the landscape was not under white Americans’ control.

White American settlements were restricted to a relatively narrow stretch of coastal land in the east until the 1780s. Some were migratory, while others were established. This terrain had changed dramatically by the early twentieth century.

White Americans had advanced westward and established authority all the way to the west coast, displacing native tribes and cutting up the whole area into several agricultural belts. The United States has grown to dominate the global agricultural products market.

Other issues arose as wheat production expanded in the Great Plains. Fearsome dust storms began to sweep across the southern plains in the 1930s.

Black blizzards swept in, often reaching heights of 7,000 to 8,000 feet and surging like huge waves of muddy water.

Throughout the 1930s, they arrived day after day, year after year. People were blinded and suffocated as the sky darkened and dust blew in.

Cattle died from suffocation, their lungs caked with dust and muck. Sand blanketed fences, covered farms, and coated riverbeds till the fish died.

When wheat farming developed substantially in the early nineteenth century, ardent farmers eradicated all vegetation, and tractors worked the land over, breaking the sod into dust.

The entire region has devolved into a dust bowl. The American ideal of a prosperous nation has become a nightmare.

The settlers believed they could conquer the whole terrain and convert all acreage to profit-generating crops.

They learned, after the 1930s, that they needed to respect the biological circumstances of each location.

Question-8) Write a paragraph on why the British insisted on farmers growing opium in India?

Solution:

When the British invaded Bengal, they made a concerted attempt to cultivate opium in the regions they controlled.

Larger amounts of opium poured out of Bengal ports as China’s opium market increased. Prior to 1767, just 500 chests were shipped from India.

Within four years, the amount had tripled. A century later, in 1870, the government was shipping around 50,000 chests each year.

To fuel this brisk export sector, supplies had to be expanded. But it wasn’t easy.

They were hesitant to convert their fields to poppies for a number of reasons. First, the crop had to be planted on the best ground possible, on fields close to communities that were properly manured.

Peasants in this region typically grew pulses. If they cultivated opium in this area, they would be unable to produce pulses there, or they would have to be grown on the inferior ground with worse and more unpredictable harvests.

Second, many farmers did not own land. They had to pay rent and lease land from landowners in order to cultivate. And the rent on good property near communities was exorbitant.

Third, opium growing was a laborious procedure. The plant was sensitive, and farmers had to devote several hours to caring for it.

As a result, they did not have enough time to care for other crops. Finally, the government paid the growers relatively little for the opium they produced. Growing opium at that price was unprofitable for growers.

Question-9) Why were Indian farmers reluctant to grow opium?

Solution: Indian farmers were hesitant to cultivate opium for the following reasons.

1.) The crop had to be farmed on the best ground possible, on fields close to communities that were properly manured.

2.) This area was often utilised to cultivate pulses. If opium was cultivated on fertile and well-manured soil, pulses would have to be grown on less fertile ground, resulting in lower yields in both quality and quantity.

3.) Opium cultivation was tough and time-consuming since the plants needed to be cared for. As a result, the growers would have no time to care for their other crops.

4.) The farmers were required to pay the landlord’s rent for their land. This was a pretty hefty rent. The cultivators did not own any land.

5.) Finally, the government paid a very low price for the opium output, leaving the farmers with little profits.

Class 9 History Chapter 6 Question Answers

Table of Contents

Class 9 History Chapter 6 Question Answers | NCERT Peasants and Farmers | Class 9 History Chapter 6 Extra Questions ( short )

Question 1: Why did farmers feel compelled to introduce mechanisation into agriculture during the Napoleonic Wars?

Answer:

Food grain prices were high during the Napoleonic Wars, therefore farmers increased production aggressively.

Fearing a labour scarcity, they began purchasing the new threshing machines that had entered the market.

They grumbled about labourers’ indebtedness, their drinking habits, and the difficulties in getting them to work.

They hoped that the machines would help them lessen their reliance on workers.

Question 2: Discuss the impact of the Agricultural Revolution on various groups of people in the English countryside?

Answer:

The introduction of modern agriculture in England resulted in a slew of changes. The wide fields vanished, and peasants’ traditional rights were eroded.

Richer farmers increased grain output, sold it on the global market, profited, and grew strong. A big number of destitute people fled their villages.

Some moved from the Midlands to southern nations where work was plentiful, while others moved to cities.

Labourers’ incomes became uncertain, their employment insecure, and their livelihoods precarious.

Question 3: What do you know about the English East India Company’s tea trade?

The English East India Company purchased tea and silk from China for sale in England.

As tea became a popular English beverage, the tea trade grew in importance.

In 1785, around 15 million pounds of tea were imported into England.

By 1830, the sum had skyrocketed to more than 30 million pounds.

In reality, the East India Company’s revenues became more dependent on the tea trade.

Question 4: How did the tea trade get funded by western merchants?

Answer:

Western traders could only purchase tea by paying with silver coins or bullion. This meant an exodus of riches from England, which caused great concern.

It was thought that losing treasure would bankrupt the country and destroy its wealth. As a result, merchants sought measures to stop the loss of silver.

They looked for a commodity that they could sell in China and persuaded the Chinese to buy. Opium was a valuable commodity.

Question 5: ‘The English landscape altered substantially during the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries.’ Explain?

Answer:

The English landscape altered drastically during the late eighteenth and early nineteenth century. Prior to this period, much of England’s landscape was open.

It was not divided into enclosed areas owned individually by landlords. There were just open fields and common lands.

The Enclosure Movement surged over the countryside after the mid-eighteenth century, forever altering the English landscape. 6 million acres of land were enclosed between 1750 and 1850.

Question 6: Why were English farmers and landowners so concerned in 1830?

Answer:

The landowners and farmers were terrified after receiving threatening letters from a strange individual named Swing. The majority of these letters were signed by Captain Swing.

The people were enraged because landowners began to utilise threshing machines, resulting in the unemployment and loss of livelihood of labourers.

A threshing machine was destroyed in 1830. There were disturbances, which scared the farmers as well.

Question 7: Explain any three causes for the increased need for wheat output in the nineteenth-century United States?

Answer:

Three factors contributed to the increase in demand for wheat output in the nineteenth-century United States:

Wheat output in the United States increased dramatically beginning in the late nineteenth century.

The urban population of the United States was booming, and the export market was expanding.

Wheat prices grew as demand for wheat soared, encouraging farmers to cultivate wheat.

The expansion of railways made it simpler to move grain from wheat-growing areas to the eastern coast for export.

During World War I, when Russian wheat supplies were cut off and the United States was forced to feed Europe, US President Wilson urged farmers to meet the demand.

Question 8: Which agricultural advances aided farmers in increasing agricultural output in England?

Answer:
Foodgrain production was made feasible not by major advances in agricultural technology, but by cultivating additional lands.

Landlords chopped up pasturelands, broke up open fields, carved up forest commons, took over wetlands, and gradually converted greater and larger regions into agricultural fields.

Farmers at this period continued to apply basic agricultural advances that had become prevalent by the early eighteenth century.

Farmers in several regions of England began planting turnips and clovers about the 1660s. They quickly learned that growing these crops enhanced and fertilised the land.

Question 9: Name three characteristics of the ‘Open Field’ system that existed in England in the 18th and early 19th centuries?

Answer:

The Open Field had three distinct features:

Prior to this period, much of England’s landscape was open. It was not divided into enclosed areas owned individually by landlords.

Peasants farmed on small plots of land surrounding the village where they resided. Every peasant possessed a mixture of excellent and bad land.

The common land lay outside the cultivated areas. The common was open to all inhabitants.

They pastured their cows and grazed their sheep here, as well as gathered food, firewood, fodder, and a variety of fruits.

They fished in rivers and ponds and hunted rabbits in open woods.

The common land was critical for the poor’s existence.

It supplemented their meagre income, supported their animals, and helped them get through difficult times when harvests failed.

Question 10: Which British technique was adopted to force hesitant growers to produce opium? How did this system function?

The British forced recalcitrant planters to produce opium through a system of advances.

Many impoverished peasants lived in the rural districts of Bengal and Bihar.

They never had enough to live on. It was tough for them to pay their landlord’s rent or buy food and clothing.

The government’s opium operatives advanced money to them through the local chiefs.

They were enticed to take it, intending to cover their immediate requirements while repaying the amount later.

The loan, however, bound the farmer to the headmen and, via them, to the government.

Question 11: Explain why the Enclosure Acts were passed by the British Parliament?

Answer:

The Enclosure Movement moved slowly until the middle of the eighteenth century. Individual landlords frequently built the first enclosures.

They had no backing from either the state or the Church. However, from the mid-eighteenth century, the Enclosure Movement swept over the countryside, irrevocably altering the English landscape, 6 million acres of land were enclosed between 1750 and 1850.

The British Parliament was no longer seeing this from afar. It enacted 4,000 Acts to make these Enclosures legitimate.

Question 12:
What caused the Great Plains region to become a dust bowl?

Answer:

When wheat farming developed substantially in the early twentieth century, zealous farmers eradicated all vegetation, and tractors worked the land over, breaking the sod into dust.

The entire region has devolved into a dust bowl. In the 1930s, terrible dust storms started to sweep across America’s southern plains.

Black blizzards swept in, often reaching heights of 7,000 to 8,000 feet and surging like huge waves of muddy water.

The American ideal of a prosperous nation has become a nightmare.

‘The dispute between the British administration, peasants, and local dealers lasted as long as opium production did.’ Explain?

Answer:

By 1773, the British administration in Bengal had created an opium monopoly. No one else could lawfully deal in the stuff.

By the 1820s, the British discovered, to their astonishment, that opium production in their domains was fast dropping, while it was rising outside of British borders.

It was manufactured in Central India and Rajasthan, in princely territories not under British rule. Local dealers in these areas were providing significantly higher rates to peasants and selling opium to China.

In reality, in the 1820s, armed bands of traffickers were discovered carrying on the trade. This transaction was unlawful in the eyes of the British: it was smuggling, and it had to be stopped.

The government’s monopoly has to be maintained.

As a result, it directed its agents stationed in the princely republics to seize all opium and destroy the fields.

This fight between the British administration, peasants, and local dealers raged on for as long as opium was produced.

Question 14: What were the effects of wheat cultivation growth in the Great Plains?

Answer:
The following were the implications of wheat cultivation growth in the Great Plains:

People were blinded and suffocated as the sky darkened and dust blew in.

Cattle died from suffocation, their lungs caked with dust and muck.

Sand blanketed fences, covered farms, and coated riverbeds till the fish died.

The carcasses of birds and animals were strewn throughout the area.

Tractors and machinery that had ploughed the land and harvested wheat in the 1920s were now choked with dust and irreparably destroyed.

Question 15: Discuss the westward spread of white settlers in the United States. How did it result in the annihilation of American Indians?

Answer:

(a) Following the American War of Independence (1775–1783) and the foundation of the United States of America, white Americans began to migrate westward.

Over 700,000 white settlers had come on to the Appalachian plateau through the passes by the time Thomas Jefferson became President of the United States in 1800.

From the east coast, America appeared to be a country of opportunity. Its wildness might be converted into arable land.

(b) In the United States, the westward expansion of settlers resulted in the annihilation of American Indians who were forced westward, down the Mississippi River, and then further west.

(c) Several conflicts were fought in which Indians were slaughtered and many of their towns were burned.

The Indians fought back and won numerous successes in conflicts, but they were eventually compelled to sign treaties, give up their territory, and relocate westward.

Class 9 History Chapter 6 Question Answers | NCERT Peasants and Farmers | Class 9 History Chapter 6 Extra Questions ( Long )

 Class 9 History Chapter 6 Question Answers | NCERT Peasants and Farmers |
Peasants and farmers

Question 1: What was the cause of the Opium War? What were the outcomes of the war?

The following were the primary causes of the opium war:

The Chinese Emperor dispatched Lin-Ze-xu to Canton as a Special Commissioner in 1839 with instructions to halt the opium trade.

Lin detained 1,600 persons involved in the opium trade after arriving in Canton in the spring of 1839 and confiscated 11,000 pounds of opium.

He compelled the manufacturers to hand up their opium inventories, burned 20,000 cartons of opium, and blew the ashes away.

When he proclaimed Canton closed to international commerce, Britain declared war. The following were the outcomes of the opium war:

After being defeated in the Opium War (1837–42), the Chinese were compelled to accept the humiliating conditions of the ensuing treaties, which legalised the opium trade and opened China to foreign traders.

Question 2: How did the enclosure movement affect the poor?

Answer:

When a piece of land was enclosed, it became the sole property of a single landowner. The impoverished were no longer able to get firewood from the forests or graze their animals on the commons.

They were unable to gather fruits and berries or hunt small animals for meals. The landlords owned everything, and the poor had to pay the price for whatever they obtained.

The destitute were evicted from their homes in several areas. As a result, they tramped in quest of a job.

It was formerly typical for labourers to live with their landlords. They ate at the master’s table and assisted their master throughout the year by performing various odd duties.

By 1800, this practice had all but vanished. Labourers were paid and hired only during harvest season.

Question 3: How has agricultural mechanisation affected the life of impoverished farmers in the United States?

Answer:

Machines were a source of pain for the poorer farmers. Many of them purchased these devices with the expectation that wheat prices would remain high and money would flood in.

Banks provided loans if they lacked funds. Borrowers found it difficult to repay their loans. Many of them abandoned their farms in search of work elsewhere.

However, it was tough to find work. The requirement for labor had been decreased as a result of mechanization.

And the late-nineteenth- and early-twentieth-century boom appeared to have peaked by the mid-twentieth-century.

Following that, most farmers had difficulties. Production had grown so quickly throughout the war and after years that there was a significant excess.

Unsold stockpiles built up, grain storage facilities flooded, and large volumes of corn and wheat were converted into animal feed.

Wheat prices have dropped, and export markets have collapsed. This laid the groundwork for the Great Agrarian Depression of the 1930s, which devastated wheat producers worldwide.

Question 4.
Describe the letters that were sent by Captain Swing to the farmers?

Answer:

 On June 1, 1830, a farmer in the northwest of England discovered his barn and haystack burnt to ashes by a fire that broke out during the night. 

Cases of similar fires were documented from a variety of areas in the months that followed. At times, simply the rick was destroyed, while at other times the entire farmhouse was destroyed.

 Then, during the night of August 28, 1830, a farmer’s threshing machine was wrecked by laborers in East Kent, England.

 Riots erupted across southern England during the next two years, resulting in the destruction of 387 threshing machines.

During this time, farmers got threatening letters encouraging them to cease utilizing machinery that took away workers’ livelihoods.

The majority of these letters were signed by Captain Swing. Fearing nighttime raids by armed gangs, several landlords destroyed their own equipment.

The government reacted harshly. Those accused of rioting were apprehended. There were 1, 976 people tried, nine men were executed, 505 were transported – nearly 450 of them to Australia – and 644 were imprisoned.

Question 5: How did the British instill opium addiction in the Chinese?

Answer:

The British use the following methods to make the Chinese hooked to opium:

The Portuguese brought opium to China, where it was utilized for medicinal purposes in modest quantities.

Opium, on the other hand, was recognised largely for its therapeutic virtues and was used in trace amounts for specific types of medications.

The Chinese were aware of the hazards of opium addiction, and the Emperor had prohibited its manufacturing and sale save for medicinal purposes.

However, in the mid-eighteenth century, Western traders established an illegal opium trade. It was unloaded at many seaports in south-eastern China and transported to the interiors by local agents.

People of all classes used the drug, including shopkeepers and peddlers, officials and army personnel, aristocrats and the destitute.

As China became an opium-addicted country, British tea trading increased.

While the English developed a taste for Chinese tea, the Chinese developed an addiction to opium.


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