Forest Society and Colonialism Class 9 Summary

In this article, We will look at the Forest Society and Colonialism Class 9 Summary. Chapter 9 of the social science textbook The greed and non-human fiscal changes brought by Britishers in India are covered under Forest Society and Colonialism. It also analyses how these changes resulted in instability and exploitation of the common people, resulting in nationwide revolts and movements. We’ve created easy-to-learn study notes to help you better understand the entire topic.

Forest Society and Colonialism Class 9 Summary

What is Forest Society and Colonialism?

  • The Act of the British Parliament restricting the use of forests and forest products by Indian farmers is referred to as Forest Society and Colonialism.
  • They believed that Indian farming practices were causing the region’s forest cover to deteriorate, which was critical to the Crown’s revenue. Farmers were paving and flattening portions for preparing land for cultivation as the demand for existing cultivable land grew.
  • Class 9 notes on forest society and colonization provide a thorough comprehension of the subject. The two historical conflicts, World War I and World War II had a tremendous impact on forests.
  • To suit the demands of the British forces, large sections of woodland were cut down. Due to the different commercially valuable forest products, the forest was also a great source of revenue. The sale of forest products accounted for a significant portion of total revenue.
  • Massive deforestation caused India to lose a large portion of its forest cover between 1880 and 1920. As a result, forest organizations arose to manage the use of forest land.
  • Farmers needed to support their families and pay taxes, so they hacked down trees indiscriminately. The agricultural areas were highly taxed in order to provide the British with the financial boost they required for their political goals.
  • Any laws that the British enacted were usually biased in favor of the Indians. Forest Rules had a significant impact on agriculture since individuals could no longer pursue agriculture as freely as they formerly could.
  • People were resolved to defend their rights, therefore they decided to rise up against oppression. In 1910, locals were given arrows and other homemade instruments in order to rebel against the British.
  • This is an important episode to include in your social science notes for class 9 on forest society and colonialism.

Also, Read: Forest Society and Colonialism Class 9 Summary Question and answers

The Rise of Commercial Forestry

  • The British were concerned that traders’ careless usage of trees and local people’s use of woods would result in forest destruction. Dietrich Brandis, a German expert, was appointed as India’s first Inspector General of Forests. The Forest Act was passed in 1906, and it was revised twice, once in 1878 and again in 1927. Forests were separated into three categories by the Act of 1878: reserved, protected, and village forests.
  • Villagers desired forests with a variety of species to meet their needs for fuel, fodder, and leaves. The forest service was looking for trees that could be used to build ships or railways. People were forced to steal wood from the trees because they couldn’t afford it. If they were caught, forest guards used to accept bribes. People are harassed by police constables and forest guards who want free meals from them.
  • Parts of the forest are cut and burned in rotation under shifting farming. Seeds are seeded in the ashes after the first monsoon rains, and the crop is harvested in October-November. This approach, according to European foresters, is damaging to the woods. This sort of farming also made tax calculation problematic for the government.
  • Tiger and other animal hunting have been a part of Indian royal and nobility tradition for generations. Under the colonial authority, the scale of hunting expanded to the point where many species died extinct. Killing wild creatures earned you a reward. Hunting was permitted in certain portions of the forest.
  • Elephants and other items such as hides, horns, silk cocoons, ivory, spices, fibers, grasses, gums, and resins were traded by Adivasi people through nomadic societies such as the Banjaras. However, trade was heavily regulated by the government, which granted many large European trading enterprises exclusive rights to trade in specific forest products.
  • Forest communities fought back against the changes being forced upon them. Siddhu and Kanu in the Santhal Parganas, Birsa Munda in Chhotanagpur, and Alluri Sitarama Raju in Andhra Pradesh are some of the movements’ leaders.
  • Bastar is in Chhattisgarh’s southernmost region, bordering Andhra Pradesh, Orissa, and Maharashtra. Bastar is home to a variety of communities, including the Maria and Muria Gonds, Dhurwas, Bhatras, and Hallas. The people of Bastar believed that the Earth gave each town their land in exchange for them caring for it.
  • In 1905, the colonial authorities suggested reserving two-thirds of the forest and prohibiting shifting agriculture, hunting, and forest product collecting. People began to discuss these topics at village council meetings, bazaars, and festivals. The Kanger forest’s Dhurwas took the lead in the first reservation. The practice of keeping people out of the forests and preserving them for industrial use remained after independence.
  • Java is known for its rice production, although it was once covered in woods that the Dutch removed. The Dutch attempted to subjugate the Javanese Kalang people, but they were excellent forest cutters and shifting cultivators. The Kalanga fought back in 1770 by storming a Dutch fort at Joana, but the revolt was put down. They specialize in gathering teak for the kings to use in the construction of their palaces.
  • The Dutch created forest rules in Java in the 19th century, limiting peasants’ access to forests. Wood could only be chopped for riverboats or house construction. Villagers were fined for grazing cattle, hauling wood without permission, and using horse carts or animals on forest routes.
  • Since the 1770s, when they refused to pay taxes or do labor on their land, the Samin people of Indonesia’s Amazon region have been rebelling against Dutch colonial power. They claimed that because the land was not created by human hands, the state could not own it.
  • The Dutch used a “scorched earth” tactic in Java, Indonesia, destroying sawmills and burning massive heaps of gigantic teak planks. It was difficult for the Indonesian forest service to reclaim this territory after the conflict. Both the First and Second World Wars had a significant influence on Indonesia’s forests.
  • Forest conservation has become a more significant priority. Dense forests have persisted in many areas across India, from Mizoram to Kerala, solely because villages safeguarded them in sacred groves such as saunas, devarakudu, kan, rai, and so on.

Learn different aspects of social science topics on Hashio and unleash your potential! Start with one of the following featured topics on our website. We also have articles that you can read so as to equip yourself with the necessary knowledge for competitive exams like IAS and UPSC.Categories

2 thoughts on “Forest Society and Colonialism Class 9 Summary”

Leave a Comment