Hashio brings French Revolution class 9 summary. The French Revolution is one of the most important events in history. It was a time of violence and chaos that changed France forever. This quiz will test your knowledge of what happened during the revolution.
The French Revolution
- In the early morning hours of 1789, the city of Paris was in a state of panic. Rumours circulated that the Monarch expected to launch gunfire on the civilians.
- People began to assemble, and they began smashing down a number of government facilities in search of weapons.
- The Bastille commander was slain in the ensuing military confrontation, as well as the inmates were liberated.
- People despised the Bastille because it represented the king’s dictatorial authority.
- People demonstrated against the heavy cost of bread.
- A fresh series of events started, leading to the King’s execution in France.
Causes of French Revolution:
1. Social cause (French society during late 18TH century)
The society was divided into 3 estates:
- Members of the first two estates, Clergy and Nobility, are born with particular rights. They are free from paying taxes. Nobility also has feudal rights, such as the ability to collect feudal debts from farmers.
- The church collects tithes from farmers to cover its costs. On common use items such as salt and cigarettes, a direct tax Taille and a number of indirect taxes are charged.
2. Economic cause (The struggle to survive)
- In 1789, France’s population increased from 23 million to 28 million, resulting in a rise in the number of food items.
- The majority of employees were engaged as labourers in workshops with fixed pay, but earnings did not hold pace with the growth in food grain costs.
- Due to the former government, this resulted in a subsistence crisis (severe shortage of basic means of living) in France.
3. Political cause:
- In 1774, Louis XVI becomes King of France and inherits an empty treasury as a result of lengthy decades of fighting that sapped financial resources and increased social unrest.
- He aided 13 American colonies in gaining freedom from their shared opponent, Britain. This conflict contributed more than 3 billion livres, for which moneylenders started charging 10% interest on the debt.
- The country was compelled to raise taxes to cover its usual costs, like the cost of maintaining an army, the judiciary, running state offices, or colleges.
Role of the middle class:
- The 18th century saw the creation of social divisions known as the middle class, who may have the means and ideas to take out large-scale actions to reform the economy and society, and who, having been educated, feel that no group should be favoured by birth.
- They amassed money by increased international commerce, the production of products like woollen and silk fabrics, and careers as attorneys and administrative officials.
- They were influenced by the writings of several thinkers and disseminated them through books and newspapers.
- For example, in his two treatises on government, John Lock attempted to challenge the notion of the king’s divine and absolute authority.
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The Outbreak of the Revolution
- On May 5, 1789, Louis XVI called an assembly to consider new tax suggestions.
- Representatives from the first and second estates were present, as were rich and educated members of the third estate.
- Each estate got one vote, according to the concept. However, members from the third estate insisted on each member having one vote.
- When the demand was denied, members of the third estate walked out in protest.
- They vowed not to discharge until France had a constitution that limited the monarch’s powers.
- Bread prices increased as a result of the harsh winter, and people had to wait in lengthy lines for hours. Rumours circulated that the lords of the estate had recruited hordes of brigands to destroy the ripe harvests.
- Fearful peasants began destroying stored food and setting fire to records carrying evidence of monarchial dues.
- Nobility left their properties.
- Louis XVI accepted the National Assembly and agreed to the notion that his powers would henceforth be limited by a constitution.
- On August 4, 1789, the Assembly enacted a decree abolishing the feudal system of responsibilities and taxes.
France Becomes a Constitutional Monarchy
- The constitution was finished by the National Assembly in 1791, with the main goal of limiting the monarch’s powers.
- These powers were now divided and given to several bodies, including the legislature, executive, and judiciary.
- France switched to a constitutional monarchy.
- Citizens voted for a group of electors, who selected the Assembly, although not every person had the freedom to vote.
- Males above the age of 25 who paid taxes equal to at least three days of a labourer’s earnings were eligible to vote.
- The Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen was the first section of the Constitution.
- Rights namely the right to life, freedom of expression, freedom of thought, and equality before the law were defined as ‘natural and inalienable rights, which meant that they belonged to every human being by birth and could not be taken away.
Did Women have a Revolution?
- Women were active participants from the start, which resulted in significant changes in the country of France.
- Women from the third estate were forced to labour for a living and had no access to education or job training.
- Working-class women had to care for their families as well.
- Women also established political groups and media. One of the most well-known women’s rights groups was the Society of Revolutionary and Republican Women.
- They desired the same political rights as males, including the opportunity to vote and occupy public office.
- The provisional government enacted legislation to better women’s life.
- Education became mandatory, divorce became lawful, and they were allowed to own modest companies.
- During the Reign of Terror, the authorities shuttered women’s groups and prohibited them from engaging in political activity.
- After tremendous effort, women in France gained the right to vote in 1946.
The Abolition of Slavery
- The abolishing of slavery in the French colonies was the most significant social change of the Jacobin administration.
- Slavery was first traded in the seventeenth century. Slaves were captured from local chieftains, branded and chained, and loaded into ships for the three-month journey over the Atlantic to the Caribbean.
- Slaves made available the increasing demands for sugar, coffee, and indigo in European markets.
- Slavery received little opposition in France all through the eighteenth century.
- The Assembly of 1794 established the abolition of slavery in all French colonial territories.
- But After ten years, Napoleon instituted slavery.
- Slavery was abolished in French colonies in 1848.
The Revolution and Everyday Life
- The lives of men, women, and children in France changed in 1789.
- Censorship was abolished in the summer of 1789.
- The Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen established free speech and expression as an inherent right.
- Because of media freedom, competing viewpoints on events may be published.
- A lot of citizens attended plays, singing, and joyful processions.
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