NCERT Solutions for class 10th History Chapter 2

This article provides NCERT Solutions for class 10th History Chapter 2. It is a compilation of all the questions asked in the NCERT textbook. The solutions are given in detail with explanations and reasoning behind each answer.

NCERT Solutions for class 10th History Chapter 2 includes the questions and their answer keys in PDF format will help you understand the concepts better.

Write in Brief NCERT Solutions for class 10th History Chapter 2

1. Explain: a. Why the growth of nationalism in the colonies is linked to an anti-colonial movement.

Answer: People started to realize their oneness as a result of the fight against colonization.
The feeling of oppression during colonialism developed a common thread that united multiple communities.

However, the consequences of colonization were viewed differently by each group & community.
Their lives were diverse, and their ideas about independence were not very consistent.
The Congress, led by Mahatma Gandhi, attempted to unite these various parties into a single movement. However, this unification did not come without struggle.

b. How the First World War helped in the growth of the National Movement in India.

Answer: 1) The war resulted in a new era of politics and the economy.

2) This resulted in a massive rise in the defence budget, which has been supported through war loans & higher taxes: customs duties were raised, as well as an income tax was enacted.

3) Villagers were outraged when they were pushed to join the army.

4) Bad harvests led to serious food insecurity.

5) Starvation and diseases killed 12 to 13 million population.

c. Why Indians were outraged by the Rowlatt Act.

Answer: 1) The Rowlatt Act was made in 1919.

2)This law was rushed thru the Imperial Legislative Council, regardless of the fact that this was strongly opposed by Indian representatives.

3) This gave the government supreme power to suppress political participation.

4)This authorized the two-year imprisonment of political opponents without charge or investigation.

d. Why Gandhiji decided to withdraw the Non-Cooperation Movement.

Answer: Mahatma Gandhi chose to end the Non-Cooperation Movement in February 1922. Gandhi believed that the struggle was becoming increasingly violent in several locations and that satyagrahis need to be correctly prepared before they could participate in large-scale protests.

2. What is meant by the idea of satyagraha?

Answer: The concept of satyagraha stressed the importance of honesty and the desire to achieve it.
This implied if the purpose was fair, if the battle was for righteousness, then physical violence was not required to combat the tyrant.

A satyagrahi might conquer the struggle via nonviolence without seeking revenge or even being confrontational.

People, especially rulers, have to be taught to realise the reality rather than being pushed to adapt it via violence.

The truth was destined to win in the end as a result of this conflict.

Gandhiji thought that dharma of nonviolence had the potential to unify all Indians.

3. Write a newspaper report on
a) The Jallianwala Bagh massacre

Answer: The tragic Jallianwalla Bagh event occurred on April 13th.

On that day, a considerable gathering had assembled in the confined area of Jallianwalla Bagh.

Some gathered to express their displeasure with the government’s oppressive policies.
Others had gathered to celebrate the traditional Baisakhi festival.

Many locals were clueless that marshall law had been implemented because they were from outside the city.

Dyer invaded the area, shut down the exits, and started firing on the crowd, resulting in the deaths.

His goal was to ‘create a moral influence’ on Satyagrahis’ thoughts, as he afterwards said. A sense of horror and awe.

b) The Simon Commission

Answer: ‘Go back, Simon,’ reportedly chanted when the Simon Commission landed in India in 1928. The protests were attended by representatives from all political groups, including Congress and the Muslim League. In an order to win indians over, british viceroy, Lord Irwin, proposed in October 1929 a dreamy proposal of ‘home rule’ for Indian in the future, as well as a Round Table Conference to consider an upcoming constitution.  But The leaders of Congress were not pleased with that.

4. Compare the images of Bharat Mata in this chapter with the image of Germania in Chapter 1.

NCERT Solutions for class 10th History Chapter 2

Answer: Germania is a symbol of Germany.
Philip Veit painted the scene in 1848.
Germania is holding a sword in one arm and a banner in another, and she is wearing an oak leaf crown, as the German oak represents courage.

India’s Symbol, Bharat Mata
Abanindranath Tagore painted it in 1905.
Bharat is accompanied by a Trishul, who is flanked by a lion and an elephant, both of which represent power and control.

10th History Chapter 2, NCERT Solutions for class 10th History Chapter 2

Long Question NCERT Solutions for class 10th History Chapter 2

1. List all the different social groups which joined the Non-Cooperation Movement of 1921. Then choose any three and write about their hopes and struggles to show why they joined the movement.

Answer:
The list consists of several social groups that participated in the Non-Cooperation Movement.
Role of the Middle Class in Cities:

1) Thousands of students quit state institutions and colleges, school heads and professors left, and attorneys discontinued practising.

2) The council elections were boycotted throughout all provinces excepting Madras, where Justice Party, a non-Brahman party, thought that joining the council was an opportunity to achieve some influence — something which traditionally the Brahmans have an influence too.

3) Non-cooperation had a much more significant impact on the economy.
Foreign products were boycotted, liquor stores were picketed, and western merchandise was burned in massive bonfires.

4) Between 1921 and 1922, international fabric imports were cut in half, with the cost falling from Rs 102 crore to Rs 50 crore.

Tribals and peasants:

1) Farmers in Awadh were headed by Baba Ramchandra,  The agitation here was very much against talukdars and landowners who demanded excessive rent and other taxations from farmers.
Farmers were forced to beg and serve on landowners’ fields for no payment.

2) They had no tenure security as renters, as they were expelled on a frequent basis, preventing them from acquiring any rights to rented property.

3) The farmer aim is to contribute to tax cuts, the elimination of begar, and the social rejection of unjust landowners.

4) Panchayats in several locations launched ‘nai-dhobi bandhs’ to deny landowners the service of barbershops and washermen.

5) Native peasants accepted Mahatma Gandhi’s and the Dalai Lama’s messages.

Plantation Workers:-

1) Workers have their own interpretations of Mahatma Gandhi as well as the concept of swaraj.
For Assamese plantations labourers, independence meant the ability to travel freely in or out of the constricted area in which they have been contained, as well as the ability to maintain a relationship with the community from where they had come.

2) Plantation labourers was not allowed to quit the tea plantations without authorization under Inland
Emigration Act of 1859 and other such authorization was rarely granted.

3) Thousands of employees has obeyed the government, abandoned the farms, and returned home after learning about the Non-Cooperation Movement.

4) They were apprehended by authorities and severely assaulted while stuck on the road due to a train and boat strike.

2. Discuss the Salt March to make clear why it was an effective symbol of resistance against colonialism.

Answer:
1) On January 31, 1930, he wrote Viceroy Irwin a letter with eleven requests.  Some were of wide interest, while others were special concerns of certain groups, ranging from businessmen to farmers.

2) The objective was to broaden the objectives so all sections in India can connect to them and join forces in a single effort. one of the most urgent demands was to repeal the salt charge.
Salt is one that is used by both the affluent and the needy, and it’s one of the most important food items.

3) According to Mahatma Gandhi, the salt tariff, as well as the state control on its manufacture, showed the one most.

4) Mahatma Gandhi began his legendary salt march with 78 of his loyal volunteers by his side. The march was almost 240 miles, from Gandhiji’s ashram in Sabarmati towards the Gujarati seaside town of Dandi.

5) The volunteers walked an average of 10 miles each day for 24 days. Thousands gathered to see Mahatma Gandhi everywhere he went, as he explained what he meant by Swaraj and encouraged Indians to oppose the British peacefully.

6) On April 6, he arrived at Dandi and ritually broke a law by boiling seawater to make salt.

7) As the campaign made waves, international clothing was blacklisted, and liquor stores were boycotted.

8) Farmers stopped paying revenues and chowkidar taxes, local authorities quit, and forest dwellers broke forests restrictions in numerous locations, entering Reserved Forests to harvest wood and feed animals.

4. Why did political leaders differ sharply over the question of separate electorates

Answer: 1) Dr. B.R. Ambedkar, who formed the Depressed Classes Association in 1930, argued against Mahatma Gandhi at the second Round Table Conference, seeking separate electorates for Dalits.

2) When the British agreed to Ambedkar’s demand, Gandhiji launched a death-defying fast.   He argued, that Separate electorates for Dalits would hinder the progress of their unification into the culture.

3) Ambedkar eventually agreed with Gandhiji, and hence the Poona Pact in September 1932 was the outcome.

4) Muhammad Ali Jinnah was ready to ditch his proposal for separate electorates if Muslims were guaranteed assigned seats within Central Assembly and membership equivalent to the population in Muslim-dominated regions (Bengal and Punjab).

5) Discussions over-representation resumed, however all chance of settling the matter at the All Parties Conference in 1928 faded when M.R. Jayakar of Hindu Mahasabha firmly rejected any attempts at settlement.


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